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From CP to EMS. Introducing an Environmental Management System based on Cleaner Production STENUM GmbH Cleaner Production – Principles. CP considers Technologies Employees Raw materials Processes Emissions Partners Products. Cleaner Production – Principles.

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from cp to ems

From CP to EMS

Introducing an Environmental Management System based on Cleaner Production


cleaner production principles
Cleaner Production – Principles

CP considers

  • Technologies
  • Employees
  • Raw materials
  • Processes
  • Emissions
  • Partners
  • Products
cleaner production principles1
Cleaner Production – Principles
    • Raw material, process material, other material, water


Primary and secondary


    • Fuels, e.g.gas, oil, coal


Solid waste, gases, wastewater

    • Mass-free, e.g. electricity or district heating
  • Energetic emissions
    • Waste heat, noise
iso 14001 2004 continuous improvement

Continuous improvement

Environmental policy

Management review

  • Planning
  • Environmental aspects
  • Legal requirements
  • Objectives, targets and programme(s)
  • Checking
  • Monitoring and measurement
  • Evaluation of compliance
  • Nonconformity, corrective and preventive action
  • Control of records
  • Internal audit
  • Implementation and operation
  • Resources, roles, responsibilities and authorities
  • Competence, training and awareness
  • Communication
  • Documentation
  • Control of documents
  • Operational control
  • Emergency preparedness and response
ISO 14001:2004 – Continuous improvement
method plan do check act
Method: Plan-Do-Check-Act
  • PLAN: Objectives and processes are defined in accordance with the environmental policy.
  • DO: Processes are implemented.
  • CHECK: Processes are monitored and measured against the environmental policy, targets, objectives, legal requirements and requirements from stakeholders. The results are reported.
  • ACT: Measures to continually improve the performance of the EMS are implemented.
what is an ems
What is an EMS?

An EMS controls all activities of the organization with environmental impact through responsibilities, tasks and procedures.

  • Environmental policy: Where do we want to go?
  • Check environmental impacts: Where are we?
  • Environmental programme and targets: Where are we going?
  • Environmental management system: How are we getting there?
  • Environmental audit: Are we on the right track?
iso 14001 2004
ISO 14001:2004

Requirements of an EMS:

  • Compliance with all relevant legal regulations
  • Identification, documentation and regular monitoring of objectives and programmes for the continuous improvement of the environmental aspects
  • Provision of relevant environmental information to the general public
elements of an ems
Elements of an EMS
  • Environmental policy
  • Initial review
  • Environmental programme
  • Internal audit
  • Certification audit
objectives of iso 14001 2004
Objectives of ISO 14001:2004

Based on this international standard a company shall establish a procedure which describes and analyses the environmental impacts resulting from its activities in a comprehensive way and take effective action to improve and control them.

structure of iso 14001 2004
Structure of ISO 14001:2004

ISO 14001:2004 consists of 4 chapters and the appendixes A and B.

  • Chapter 1: Scope
  • Chapter 2: Normative references
  • Chapter 3: Terms
  • Chapter 4: Requirements for an EMS
  • Appendix A: Instruction for application
  • Appendix B: Comparison of ISO 14001:2004 and the quality management system standard ISO 9001:2000
initial environmental review
Initial environmental review
  • Analysis of environmental aspects and impacts
  • Objectives:
    • Collection of all relevant data (material and energy flows by volume, costs and risk)
    • Evaluation of aspects according to their specific environmental importance
    • Definition of company-specific problems in the scope of the environmental policy
    • Setting priorities for possible improvement
initial environmental review1
Initial environmental review
  • Assessment of environmental impacts
  • Evaluation tool
    • Analysis of specific aspects
    • Development of opportunities for improvement
  • Potential environmental impacts:
    • Location of impact: atmosphere, water, soil, resources, etc.
    • Environmental impact: ground ozone, hazardous gases, smoke, radioactivity, hazardous substances, waste, soil contamination, energies, raw materials, noise, vibrations, etc.
    • Influence of: CO², N²O, freons, energy consumption, industrial usage, sealing of land, etc.
procedure for the assessment of environmental impacts
Procedure for the assessment of environmental impacts
  • Site inspection
  • Material and energy analysis
  • Gap analysis
  • Risk assessment
  • Legal compliance
assessment site inspection
Assessment: Site inspection
  • Identifying environmental aspects and impacts of all technical equipment, processes and prior activities
  • Analysing the equipment and comparing to best available technology (efficiency, losses)
  • Analysing the possible risks arising from use of the equipment
assessment material and energy analysis
Assessment: Material and energy analysis
  • Identification of material and energy losses due to inefficiencies
  • Identification of toxic or environmentally hazardous substances
  • Balance scheme
assessment gap analysis and risk analysis
Assessment: Gap analysis and risk analysis
  • Gap analysis: Evaluation of responsibilities, existing procedures and documents related to environmental aspects
  • Risk analysis: Determined by relevance and probability
    • Example:
assessment legal compliance
Assessment: Legal compliance
  • Determine which legal and other requirements apply to the company’s situation
  • Adapt procedures accordingly
  • Define the environmental aspects concerned
evaluation of the initial environmental review
Evaluation of the initial environmental review
  • Prioritization of the evaluated environmental problems
  • Priorities set by evaluation criteria
  • In practice often determined by economic parameters
    • High losses occur but only low investment is necessary
    • Responsibilities are not defined
    • Limits are exceeded
    • Clear non-compliance with ISO 14001:2004
environmental policy environmental objectives
Environmental Policy – Environmental Objectives

Where are we going?

Steps to draft and issue an environmental policy

  • Analysing environmental policy requirements
  • Environmental policy proposal
  • Identifying and evaluating aspects
  • Include significant aspects in the policy
  • Discussion with the heads of department whether the policy can be used as a basis for the definition of environmental objectives
  • Issuing the environmental policy
environmental targets and environmental programme
Environmental targets and environmental programme
  • Definition of targets to ensure that the objectives are met
  • Environmental targets must be defined to
    • Provide all necessary resources
    • Define responsibilities at all relevant levels
    • Ensure a continuous process of improvement
  • The EMS manual describes how the company’s EMS operates
  • The EMS manual should include:
    • Environmental policy
    • Organizational structure
    • Statement of objectives and targets and the environmental improvement programme
    • Responsibilities and authorities of employees involved in the EMS
    • Documented procedures for all processes and activities with significant potential environmental impact
documentation of selected elements
Documentation of selected elements
  • Operational control and record keeping
  • Management of the EMS
  • Emergency planning
  • Internal audits
    • Selecting auditors
    • Frequency
    • Audit process
    • Nonconformities
  • Information on the management system
    • Basic information
    • Deeper understanding
    • Training records
  • Contractor awareness
template for an ems manual according to iso 14001 2004
Template for an EMS manual according to ISO 14001:2004

The EMS manual documents:

  • Environmental policy
  • Environmental objectives
  • Planning process
  • Responsibilities and procedures for environmental protection
structure of an ems
Structure of an EMS
  • Table of Contents
  • General Requirements
  • Environmental Policy
  • Planning
  • Implementation and procedures
  • Control
  • Management review
general requirements
General requirements
  • Introduction of the company
  • Authorities – responsibilities (environmental organization chart)
  • Revision status and date of last revision
  • Information for the user, contents of the environmental manual and structure of an element
  • List of environmentally relevant documents
  • Terms and abbreviations
1 environmental policy
1 Environmental policy
  • Part of the company’s overall policy
  • Objectives:
    • Definition of an environmental policy
    • Authorization and communication within the company
  • Contents:
    • Lines of action
    • Compliance with relevant environmental legislation
    • Commitment to continuous improvement of environmental aspects
    • Reduction of environmental aspects using best available technology
2 planning environmental aspects
2 Planning – Environmental aspects
  • Objective:
    • Development of a procedure for auditing, controlling and evaluating the relevant environmental aspects
  • Implementation:
    • Identifying the environmental aspects of activities, products and services
    • Considering aspects which are connected to products and services
    • Introducing criteria and an identification process for environmental aspects
    • Documenting and filing relevant environmentalaspects
relevant processes and plants
Relevant processes and plants
  • Which environmentally relevant plants are in operation?What are their regular emissions?(Flowchart, emissions)
  • Which unscheduled processes are relevant? (FMEA, Ishikawa)
example process map of a machine manufacturing company

Core processes:

Customer consulting

Development and design





Recruitment, training


Example: Process map of a machine manufacturing company

Management processes:




Support processes:


Accounting and administration


evaluation of environmental effects

Standard process operation



Use of toxic materials


High loss of material and energy in relation to sector-specific benchmarks.Or:No information available

Several accidents per year

Considerable effects possible

No precautions


No information available onrisks and effects


Efficiency could be improved

Materials could be substituted

A few accidents, Precautionary measures could be improved


No toxic materials Full compliance, Small losses

No accidents, no risk, effective precautionary measures

Evaluation of environmental effects
2 planning legal and other requirements
2 Planning – Legal and other requirements
  • Objective:
    • Establishment of a procedure for identifying, evaluating and updating legal requirements and requirements from stakeholders
  • Implementation:
    • Identification of all legal requirements
    • Compliance with laws and regulations
    • Identification of a person responsible for environmental laws
2 planning objectives targets and programme s
2 Planning – Objectives, targets and programme(s)
  • Objective:
    • Objectives and targets for each relevant function and level of the organization
  • Implementation:
    • Objectives consistent with the environmental policy to support preventive environmental protection and minimize negative environmental impacts
    • Specific and measurable objectives and targets – development of indicators
policy targets programme
Policy – targets – programme





Action (responsibility, date, resources)

definition of targets
Definition of targets

Targets could be:

  • Best available practices and technology
  • Minimization of costs
  • Continuous improvement
targets should be
Targets should be
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Realistic
  • Time-related
3 implementation and operation framework
3 Implementation and operation – Framework
  • Objectives:
    • Allocation of the necessary resources (personnel, know-how, technology and financial means)
    • Definition of responsibilities, tasks and authorities
  • Implementation:
    • Appointment of an environmental management representative
    • Documentation of responsibilities and authorities
    • Sufficient resources
3 implementation and operation competence training and awareness
3 Implementation and operation – competence, training and awareness
  • Objectives:
    • Implementation of a procedure to systemically develop technical competences
    • Identifying training needs, preparing a training plan and creating awareness
  • Implementation:
    • Training, information and motivation of employees
    • Focused training ensures competence of personnel
    • Reducing the risk of accidents and incidents
3 implementation and operation communication
3 Implementation and operation – Communication
  • Objectives:
    • Development of a system which ensures external and internal information
  • Implementation:
    • Development of a communication concept and its implementation
    • Use of different instruments (meetings, reports, etc.)
    • Communication with relevant stakeholders (employees, external stakeholders such as suppliers, investors, NGOs, etc.)
communication and information
How long does it take to inform our employees about the environmental policy?

If each informed employee talks to two uninformed ones per day, on will know!

Communication and information
3 implementation and operation documentation
3 Implementation and operation – Documentation
  • Objectives:
    • Installation of a documentation system including the elements required by ISO 14001.
  • Implementation:
    • Elements of an EMS documentation (manual, checklists, forms, process instructions, etc.)
    • Criteria for the documentation
    • Benefits of proper documentation:
      • Easier implementation by communication and training
      • Easier maintenance and revision
      • Lower risks
      • Easier proof and explanation
3 implementation and operation control of documents
3 Implementation and operation – Control of documents
  • Objectives:
    • Definition of a procedure which controls the collection, identification, registration, storage and retrieval of environmental documents
  • Implementation:
    • Decision on the contents of the documents and the objectives
    • Explanation of the procedures for drawing up, checking, dissemination, updating and invalidation
3 implementation and operation operational control
3 Implementation and operation – Operational control
  • Objectives:
    • Exact control of processes with environmental impacts
    • Identification of necessary measurements and indicators
  • Implementation:
    • Description of regulations and definition of processes with relevant environmental impacts
      • Ecological procurement
      • Storage of materials
      • Maintenance
      • Energy management, …
development of a set of indicators

Mass balances and costs


Set of indicators

Development of a set of indicators
  • Targets:
  • Reduction of material losses
  • Substitution (e.g. processes, materials)
  • Cost reduction
  • Structuring of relevant data (databases, organization charts etc.),
  • Presentation, analysis and monitoring of data
  • Decision making (choose relevant data to achieve targets)
3 implementation and maintenance emergency preparedness and response
3 Implementation and maintenance – Emergency preparedness and response
  • Objectives:
    • Identification of potential accidents and emergencies and implementation of preventive measures
  • Implementation:
    • Definition of emergency procedures for all activities and areas
    • Individual procedures for the use of hazardous materials
    • Establishing a standard procedure to prevent risks and minimize danger
    • Documentation of behaviour during accidents and emergency situations
4 checking monitoring and measurement
4 Checking – Monitoring and measurement
  • Objectives:
    • Introduction of a procedure to measure and monitor environmentally relevant aspects
    • Documentation of corresponding objectives and targets
  • Implementation:
    • Permits, specific threshold values for concentrations and loads of pollutants, applicable procedures and standards for measurement and monitoring
    • Measurement of process parameters
    • Recording of measurements
    • List of inspection equipment including parameters (emission parameters, equipment to be used, frequency of measurements, etc.)
4 checking evaluation of compliance
4 Checking – Evaluation of compliance
  • Objectives:
    • Implementation of a procedure to evaluate compliance with all relevant laws, regulations and legal obligations
    • Documentation of compliance audits
  • Implementation:
    • Definition of the responsibility for implementation
    • Regular compliance audit
    • Monitoring compliance with the identified legal requirements
4 checking nonconformity corrective and preventive action
4 Checking – Nonconformity, corrective and preventive action
  • Objectives:
    • Implementation of a procedure for identifying corrective measures and eliminating measures which result in nonconformity
    • Implementation of corrective and preventive measures
    • Implementation of a procedure to document gaps and corrective measures including updates
  • Implementation:
    • Documentation of procedures in case of deviation from the targets and the environmental programme
4 checking control of records
4 Checking – Control of records
  • Objectives:
    • All documents used inside the company
      • Must be clearly identified
      • Are checked and revised
      • Must only be used in their valid version
    • Expired documents have to be immediately withdrawn and clearly marked as such
  • Implementation:
    • Identification, filing, protection, retrieval, retention and disposal of relevant records (documentation of trainings, records from process control, etc.)
4 checking internal audit
4 Checking – Internal audit
  • Objectives:
    • Development of a procedure and programme for internal audits and systematic preparation and documentation of the certification audit
  • Implementation:
    • The regular and objective evaluation of performance of the company, the management and the processes is systematically documented
    • Qualified internal auditors or external auditor
the tasks of an auditor
The tasks of an auditor





Option identification

5 management review
5 Management review
  • Objectives:
    • Regular management review of the system and documentation of a procedure to ensure continuous improvement
  • Implementation:
    • Regular monitoring and evaluation ensures improvement of the environmental performance
    • Definition of responsibilities
    • Report including observations, conclusions and recommendations and a list of necessary measures
    • Various documents (results from internal audits, reports, analyses and minutes, results of external audits, etc.)
case study znovin znojmo
Case Study: Znovin Znojmo
  • Winery with 80 employees
  • 100 m crowns of annual turnover
  • 30,000 hl of production in 1997
  • High quality winesObjective: Production of organically grown wine

Wine production:

  • Wine harvest, Transport to cellar
  • Pressing
  • Fermentation
  • Filtering, treatment
  • Filling, packing
  • Delivering

Organic waste


case study znovin znojmo1
Environmental programme:

Environmental policy


Definition of procedures:

Legal compliance

Materials, products and emissions



Correction, audit, review

Training of employees

Optimization of water system

Introduction of the EMS (1995)

Case Study: Znovin Znojmo



Collection of regulations and documents

Completion, documentation of procedures


Coordination, training

case study znovin znojmo2
Case Study: Znovin Znojmo



Procedure, organization, documentation

Legal compliance


Control, audit




case study znovin znojmo3
Case Study: Znovin Znojmo

Result: BOD emissions

reduced by 18 t

per year!