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Week 1 Lectures 1. Introduction to CPS Instructor: Prof. Fei Hu, ECE, Univ of Alabama. Computing Evolution. CPS: Computing Perspective. Two types of computing systems Desktops, servers, PCs, and notebooks Embedded The next frontier Mainframe computing (60’s-70’s)

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week 1 lectures 1

Week 1 Lectures 1

Introduction to CPS

Instructor: Prof. Fei Hu, ECE, Univ of Alabama

cps computing perspective
CPS: Computing Perspective
  • Two types of computing systems
    • Desktops, servers, PCs, andnotebooks
    • Embedded
  • The next frontier
    • Mainframe computing (60’s-70’s)
      • Large computers to execute big data processing applications
    • Desktop computing & Internet (80’s-90’s)
      • One computer at every desk to do business/personal activities
    • Embedded computing (21st Century)
      • “Invisible” part of the environment
      • Transformation of industry
  • Number of microprocessor units per year
    • Millions in desktops
    • Billions in embedded processors
  • Applications:
    • Automotive Systems
      • Light and heavy automobiles, trucks, buses
    • Aerospace Systems
      • Airplanes, space systems
    • Consumer electronics
      • Mobile phones, office electronics, digital appliances
    • Health/Medical Equipment
      • Patient monitoring, MRI, infusion pumps, artificial organs
    • Industrial Automation
      • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems for chemical and power plants
      • Manufacturing systems
    • Defense
      • Source of superiority in all weapon systems
cps definition
CPS Definition

A CPS is a system in which:

  • information processing and physical processes are so tightly integrated that it is not possible to identify whether behaviors are the result of computations, physical laws, or both working together
  • where functionality and salient system characteristics are emerging through the interaction of physical and computational objects
what are cyber physical systems
What are Cyber-Physical Systems?

Based on Dr. Helen Gill from U.S. NSF:

  • Cyber–computation, communication, and control that are discrete, logical, and switched
  • Physical–natural and human-made systems governed by the laws of physicsandoperating in continuous time
  • Cyber-Physical Systems–systems in which the cyber and physical systems are tightly integrated at all scales and levels
  • Change from cyber merely appliquéd on physical Change from physical with COTS “computing as parts” mindset
  • Change from ad hoc to grounded, assured development
  • “CPS will transform how we interact with the physical world
  • just like the Internet transformed how we interact with one another.”
characteristics of cyber physical systems
Characteristics of Cyber-Physical Systems

Some hallmark characteristics:

  • Cyber capability in every physical component
  • Networked at multiple and extreme scales
  • Complex at multiple temporal and spatial scales
  • Constituent elements are coupled logically and physically
  • Dynamically reorganizing/reconfiguring; “open systems”
  • High degrees of automation, control loops closed at many scales
  • Unconventional computational & physical substrates (such as bio, nano, chem, …)
  • Operation must be dependable, certified in some cases
more features
More features…
  • Some defining characteristics:
  • • Cyber – physical coupling driven by new demands and applications
  • • Cyber capability in every physical component
  • • Large scale wired and wireless networking
  • • Networked at multiple and extreme scales
  • • Systems of systems
  • • New spatial-temporal constraints
  • • Complex at multiple temporal and spatial scales
  • • Dynamically reorganizing/reconfiguring
  • • Unconventional computational and physical substrates (Bio? Nano?)
  • • Novel interactions between communications/computing/control
  • • High degrees of automation, control loops must close at all scales
  • • Large numbers of non-technical savvy users in the control loop
  • • Ubiquity drives unprecedented security and privacy needs
  • • Operation must be dependable, certified in some cases
why cyber physical systems
Why Cyber-Physical Systems?
  • • CPS allow us to add capabilities to physical systems
  • • By merging computing and communication with
  • physical processes, CPS brings many benefits:
  • • Safer and more efficient systems
  • • Reduce the cost of building and operating systems
  • • Build complex systems that provide new capabilities
  • • Technological and Economic Drivers
  • • The decreasing cost of computation, networking, and sensing
  • • Computers and communication are ubiquitous, enables national or
  • global scale CPSs
  • • Social and economic forces require more efficient use of national
  • infrastructure.
cps systems at multiple scales
CPS: Systems at Multiple Scales
  • A BMW is “now actually a network of computers”
  • [R. Achatz, Seimens, The Economist,Oct. 11, 2007]

Credits to Dr. Helen Gill at NSF

transformation of industries automotive
Transformation of Industries:Automotive
  • Current picture
    • Largely single-vehicle focus
    • Integrating safety and fuel economy (full hybrids, regenerative braking, adaptive transmission control, stability control)
    • Safety and convenience “add-ons” (collision avoidance radar, complex airbag systems, GPS, …)
    • Cost of recalls, liability; growing safety culture
  • Better future?
    • Multi-vehicle high-capacity cooperative control roadway technologies
    • Vehicular networks
    • Energy-absorbing “smart materials” for collision protection (cooperative crush zones?)
    • Alternative fuel technologies, “smart skin” integrated photovoltaics and energy scavaging, ….
    • Integrated operation of drivetrain, smart tires, active aerodynamic surfaces, …
    • Safety, security, privacy certification; regulatory enforcement
  • Time-to-market race

Image thanks to Sushil Birla, GMC

cps in multiple domains
CPS in Multiple Domains

Energy: smart appliances, buildings, power grid

  • Net-zero energy buildings
  • Minimize peak system usage
  • No cascading failures

Healthcare: embedded medical devices and smart prosthetics; operating room of the future; integrated health care delivery

  • Patient records available at every point of care
  • 24/7 monitoring and treatment
slide17

Transformation of Industries: Health Care and Medicine

  • National Health Information Network, Electronic Patient Record initiative
    • Medical records at any point of service
    • Hospital, OR, ICU, …, EMT?
  • Home care: monitoring and control
    • Pulse oximeters (oxygen saturation), blood glucose monitors, infusion pumps (insulin), accelerometers (falling, immobility), wearable networks (gait analysis), …
  • Operating Room of the Future (Goldman)
    • Closed loop monitoring and control; multiple treatment stations, plug and play devices; robotic microsurgery (remotely guided?)
    • System coordination challenge
  • Progress in bioinformatics: gene, protein expression; systems biology; disease dynamics, control mechanisms

Images thanks to Dr. Julian Goldman, Dr. Fred Pearce

slide18

IT Layer

Transformation of Industries: Electric Power Grid

  • Current picture:
    • Equipment protection devices trip locally, reactively
    • Cascading failure: August (US/Canada) and October (Europe), 2003
  • Better future?
    • Real-time cooperative control of protection devices
    • Or -- self-healing -- (re-)aggregate islands of stable bulk power (protection, market motives)
    • Ubiquitous green technologies
    • Issue: standard operational control concerns exhibit wide-area characteristics (bulk power stability and quality, flow control, fault isolation)
    • Context: market (timing?) behavior, power routing transactions, regulation

Images thanks to William H. Sanders, Bruce Krogh, and Marija Ilic

main application domains
Main Application Domains
  • A new underlying discipline
  • Abstracting from sectors to more general principles
  • Apply these to problems in new sectors
  • Build a new CPS community
interaction and coordination
Interaction and Coordination

Changes in Cyber

Changes in Physical

  • Precise interaction and coordination protocols
  • Hugely increased system size with controllable, stable behavior
  • Dynamic system architectures (nature and extent of interaction can be modified)
  • Adaptive, autonomic behavior
  • Self-descriptive, self monitoring system architecture for safety guarantees.
  • Rich time models instead of sequencing
  • Behavioral invariants instead of end results
  • Functionality through interactions of ongoing behaviors instead of sequence of actions
  • Component architectures instead of procedural abstraction
  • Concurrency models with partially ordered instead of linearly ordered event sets
cps challenges
CPS Challenges
  • Societal challenge –CPS people can bet their lives on
  • Technical challenge –Systems that interface the cyber and physical, with predictable behavior
  • Where are the boundaries?
  • What are the limits to abstracting the physical world?
  • Are complex CPS too unpredictable?
  • Can we transcend overly conservative design?
it is a new discipline
It is a new discipline!
  • Not simply robotics/motion control/vision –rather, design for certifiably dependable control of (complex) systems
  • Principles for bridging control, real-time systems, safety, security (not just a platform question –rather an interdisciplinary systems science issue)
  • Next generation system architectures, a recurring question: “What’s in a mode?” (cooperation/coordination? is the safety controller reachable?)
  • Next generation system ID (bridging machine learning with traditional system ID state estimation, stochasticsand uncertainty, purpose: reactive and predictive control)
  • Next generation fault tolerance (not just TMR: multicore/many-core, new forms of analytic and synthetic redundancy for FT, addressing interference and interaction, including separation/correlation reasoning)
  • Next generation real-time systems (coordinated, dynamic multisystem scheduling; property-preserving scheduling; timed networks, precision timing)
  • FPGAs and other reconfigurables; not just “software” –rather, next generation DA and PLs, system abstractions, software/system co-synthesis
  • Safe AND Secure, Resilient AND Capable
why is cps hard
Why is CPS Hard?

Software

Control

Systems

package org.apache.tomcat.session;

import org.apache.tomcat.core.*;

import org.apache.tomcat.util.StringManager;

import java.io.*;

import java.net.*;

import java.util.*;

import javax.servlet.*;

import javax.servlet.http.*;

/**

* Core implementation of a server session

*

* @author James Duncan Davidson [duncan@eng.sun.com]

* @author James Todd [gonzo@eng.sun.com]

*/

public class ServerSession {

private StringManager sm =

StringManager.getManager("org.apache.tomcat.session");

private Hashtable values = new Hashtable();

private Hashtable appSessions = new Hashtable();

private String id;

private long creationTime = System.currentTimeMillis();;

private long thisAccessTime = creationTime;

private long lastAccessed = creationTime;

private int inactiveInterval = -1;

ServerSession(String id) {

this.id = id;

}

public String getId() {

return id;

}

public long getCreationTime() {

return creationTime;

}

public long getLastAccessedTime() {

return lastAccessed;

}

public ApplicationSession getApplicationSession(Context context,

boolean create) {

ApplicationSession appSession =

(ApplicationSession)appSessions.get(context);

if (appSession == null && create) {

// XXX

// sync to ensure valid?

appSession = new ApplicationSession(id, this, context);

appSessions.put(context, appSession);

}

// XXX

// make sure that we haven't gone over the end of our

// inactive interval -- if so, invalidate and create

// a new appSession

return appSession;

}

void removeApplicationSession(Context context) {

appSessions.remove(context);

}

/**

* Called by context when request comes in so that accesses and

* inactivities can be dealt with accordingly.

*/

void accessed() {

// set last accessed to thisAccessTime as it will be left over

// from the previous access

lastAccessed = thisAccessTime;

thisAccessTime = System.currentTimeMillis();

}

void validate()

Crosses Interdisciplinary Boundaries

  • Disciplinary boundaries need to be realigned
  • New fundamentals need to be created
  • New technologies and tools need to be developed
  • Education need to be restructured
heterogeneity and modeling languages
Heterogeneity and Modeling Languages

Computing

System

Composition

Domain

Physical

System

Composition

Domain

Physical

instantiation

Physical system

characteristics

Logical

specification

(source code)

  • “Cyber” Models
  • Modeling Languages
    • Structure
    • Behaviors
  • Mathematical Domains
    • traces/state variables
    • no reference semantics or “semantic units”
  • Physical Models
  • Modeling Languages
    • Structure
    • Behaviors
  • Physical Laws
    • Physical variables
    • Physical Units
slide31

Goal: Heterogeneous and Composable Design Flows

Component

Integration

System

Modeling

Validation

Verification

Target

Analysis

Component

Implement.

Comp/Platf

Modeling

Controller

Synthesis

System

Analysis

Code

Synthesis

Validation

Verification

Target

Analysis

Platform

Modeling

Platform

Platform Models

Platform Models

Interaction/Fault mgmt/… Models

Test Vectors

Integrated CodeModel

Download

Download

Plant Model

Valid Code/Model

Integrated Model

Valid Model

Code/Model

System Model

Component Model

Partial Model

Component Code

Valid Code/Model

Design Feedback

Valid Model

Design Feedback

Design Feedback

Design Feedback

Design Feedback

Matlab

SimulatorCheckmate

SAL

Teja

UP Reach

Charon

R-T

Workshop

ECSL/GME

Kestrel

Ptolemy

Simulink

Stateflow

ECSL/GME

Ptolemy

PENTIUM/

TAO/

BOLD-STROKE

ESML/GME

Honeywell

CMU

ESML/GME

Honeywell

TimeWeaver

AIRES

SWRI/ASC

TimeWiz

AIRES

SWRI/ASC

ESML/GME

MPC555/

OSEK

PENTIUM/

QNX

Checkmate

Charon

UML/RoseESML/GME

Manual

Checkmate

AIRES

WindView

AIRES

Avionics Design Flow

Automotive Design Flow

BACKPLANE

Open Tool Integration Framework

  • Integrated Physical/Computational Modeling and Analysis
  • Generative Programming
  • Hybrid System Analysis
  • Customizable (metaprogrammable) modeling tools and generators
  • Open tool integration framework; configurable design flow and composable design environments

Metagenerators

MIC/GENKestrel

MetamodelComposition &

Validation

GME/Meta

Metamodeling

UML/OCL

GME/Meta

change in cps applications networked systems

Common Operating

Picture

ESO

ESO

COP

Warfighter Interface

Mission Planning & Prep

Situation Understanding

Battle Mgmt & Execution

Sensor Fusion

Target Recognition

Integrated Sustainment

Embedded Training

EPLRS

SINCGARS

VHF

Link 4A

Link 11

Link 16

WIN T

L COP

L COP

L COP

L COP

Common Services

Information Management

Computing and Networking

HQ

HQ

WNW

WNW

Change in CPS Applications: Networked Systems

Future Systems in the Field

  • Heterogeneous CPS
  • Open Dynamic Architecture - heterogeneous networking - heterogeneous components
  • Very high level concurrency with complex interactions
  • Challenge: understanding system interactions and analyzing (bounding) behavior

Standards-Based

Open Software

Architecture

Information Management

Joint Common

Database

Distributed Database

Information Layer

Interoperable

export

DB Synchronization

FIOP

Interoperability

Reachback

HHQ

XX

Battle

Command

UE/HQ

WIN-T

Hierarchical Ad-Hoc Network

stubnet

JTRS

Data

Images

Voice

Video

UGS

Vetronics

EO/IR

EO/IR

SAR/MTI

Common Vehicle

Subsystems

Networked Command

Platform