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Encoding Failure

Encoding Failure

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Encoding Failure

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  1. Encoding Failure Illustrate the effort needed to store some things in our memory despite extensive exposure to the stimuli.

  2. MemoryChapter 8

  3. Forgetting An inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval.

  4. Encoding Failure We cannot remember what we do not encode.

  5. Activity: Encoding Failure • 1.  What is the color of the top stripe of the American flag? The bottom stripe? How many red and how many white stripes does it have? • 2.  If you have a watch with mechanical hands, cover the face and try to recall what it looks like. How many numbers does it have? Are they Arabic or Roman numerals—or does it have any numbers at all?

  6. Activity: Encoding Failure • 3.  Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides do they typically have? • 4.  In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch? • 5.  The White House is pictured on the back of a $20 bill. What is on the back of a $10 bill? A $5 bill? A $1 bill? • 6.  What four words besides “In God We Trust” appear on most U.S. coins?

  7. Activity: Encoding Failure • 1.  What is the color of the top stripe of the American flag? (Red) The bottom stripe? (Red) How many red and how many white stripes does it have? (7 red and 6 white) • 2.  If you have a watch with mechanical hands, cover the face and try to recall what it looks like. How many numbers does it have? Are they Arabic or Roman numerals—or does it have any numbers at all?

  8. Activity: Encoding Failure • 3.  Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides do they typically have? (Six) • 4.  In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch? (Right) • 5.  The White House is pictured on the back of a $20 bill. What is on the back of a $10 bill? (Treasury Building) A $5 bill? (Lincoln Memorial) A $1 bill? (The word “One”) • 6.  What four words besides “In God We Trust” appear on most U.S. coins? (United States of America)

  9. Activity 2: Penny • Which way does Lincoln face as you look at a penny? • Is anything written above his head? • Anything below his head? • Anything written to the left of his face? • Anything written to the right of his face?

  10. The reason most North Americans cannot accurately describe the head of a penny is due to: • A. storage decay. • B. encoding failure. • C. motivated forgetting. • D. retrieval failure.

  11. Storage Decay Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve.

  12. Retaining Spanish Bahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years. Andrew Holbrooke/ Corbis

  13. Retrieval Failure Although the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin).

  14. Interference Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information.

  15. Retroactive Interference Sleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, it leads to better recall.

  16. During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates: • A. the spacing effect. • B. proactive interference. • C. retroactive interference. • D. state-dependent memory.

  17. After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates: A. repression. B. retroactive interference. C. encoding failure. D. source amnesia.

  18. After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates: • A. repression. • B. retroactive interference. • C. encoding failure. • D. source amnesia.