Timeline GEOMETRIC AND ORIENTALIZING -900-600 BCE ARCHAIC -600-500 BCE EARLY AND HIGH CLASSICAL-500 – 400 BCE LATE CLASSICAL - 400-300 BCE HELLENISTIC -323 – 31 BCE
Classical Greek art makes everything HAP-N H=Humanism A=Anatomy P=Perfection | N=Nature H A P-N
Greece- what was it about? 1. The exaltation of humanity/rational man as the “measure of all things.” The being who has the intellectual power to create balance and order in the individual and in the society as a whole. 2. Balance... of mind and body--of the intellect and physical strength/beauty was of supreme importance to the Greeks. “... for we are lovers of the beautiful... we cultivate the mind without loss of manliness... We are the school of Greece.” ... Peracles
beauty comes from nature • Focus on this world • Close observation of the natural world • Constant strive for perfection • Naturalism • Humanism • Why Nude? • Concern for human related ideas/concerns etc. • Humanity is what matters • Values • Democracy demo=people • Intellect • Body • Visible means of conveying perfection • Perfection was: • Balance • Harmony • Symmetry
Important features of Greek art • What is beautiful? • That which “aims at its purpose” Aristotle • When we strive for perfection • How do the gods play into this? • “By searching for the Good we are better equipped to understand the world.” Plato • Two ways of achieving that purpose • Exploring the physical (Aristotle) • Exploring the metaphysical (Plato)
Kritios BoyClassical Greek450 BCEKEY Piece The final break with Egyptian art. Contrapposto stance (or counterbalance is shown with the dip in the right hip and the bent leg, the artist has captured the weight shift and has carved this shift in marble.) Slight Turn of the head Transitions from the Archaic to the Classical Very naturalistic- sculpted form live models- little idealism. Called Kritios Boy, because it was once thought to have been carved by a man named Kritios.
Riace WarriorClassical Greek450 BCE Classical period begins c.450 BCE rationality/physical New break away from the former unnatural, stiff, and immovable Egyptian stances -Here the warriors are in a much more natural pose that is termed contrapposto-how humans really stand. -The larger image is a hollow-bronze cast-the teeth are inlaid with silver; the lips and nipples are made out of copper. -The figure almost seems to be in motion. -No longer see the Archaic smile -They are impossibly perfect which shows the movement away from a “naturalizing” tendency at the beginning of the Classical period and towards a more “idealized” focus.
PolykleitosSpear Bearer orDoryphorosClassical Greek- 450 BCEKEY PIECE Roman copy of the original -Can see the sculptor striving for perfection found in the human form -Contrapposto pose -See opposition in all of the figure's limbs-creates a very fluid, but dynamic, posture. -Though natural stance, the figure is still idealized and would not be found in nature-"god-like“ Demonstration piece to accompany a treatise on the subject of the ideal statue -Created through the utilization of math, not sculpted from real life, hence the statue is perfect. Called the Canon in its day- meant to be the inspiration for athletes- -He is both a warrior and an athlete and his hand once held a spear -He averts your gaze, you may admire him, but he does not recognize the attention. -no emotion just perfection of human form http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aU81g9wmg8Q
How can I remember that? Sing the song! • Polyclitus wrote the Canon • Sculpture too! Spear bearer! • Ideal proportions make the perfect human • Seven heads tall, seven heads tall
MyronDiscus Thrower or DiskobolosClassical Greek450 BCE -This is a Roman copy of the original statue that no longer exists. -The trunk of the tree was added for support. -Everything about the figure is in motion-captured at the peak moment of the movement. -See influence from Archaic style because the chest faces the onlooker, not truly statue in the round, it is meant to be viewed from the front -No real expression because it is a timeless moment -Unlike Archaic style because the disc thrower is more concerned about the actual throw than the viewers watching -The arms and legs form an intersection of arcs-more energy.
Athena, Herakles, and Atlas from the Temple of Zeus Classical Greek 450 BCE -Atlas returning to Herakles with the apples of Hesperides: Herakles held the world up (with a cushion so soften the discomfort) for Atlas while he was gone -Transitional phase between the stiff Archaic and the more relaxed Classical forms -Athena’s body is revealed under her robes, and heavily idealized bodies of Atlas and Herakles -No Archaic smile -Figures appear to contemplate, another dimension that makes them not Archaic
Doric- the capital is shaped like a side ways letter “D” Ionic- the whole thing is shaped like the letter “I” Corinthian- the acanthus leaves on the capital look like little “C”’s
Iktinos & KallikratesParthenonClassical Greek- 420 BCEKey Piece Perfectly proportioned Built to replace earlier temple destroyed by the Persians -Combination of Doric and Ionic styles -Columns are more slender than the original attempts -Located on the Acropolis -Algebra was used to find the perfect proportions with the following equation: x = 2y +1 (the temple’s short ends have 8 columns; the long sides have 17 17=2(8)+1) -There is curvature to the entire building - optical illusion because it looks perfectly vertical and horizontal; this gives it a feeling of being more natural -Axial
PhidiasAthena Parthenos (or the Virgin)Classical Greek438 BCE No longer exists We know about it from descriptions from Roman and Greek authors and from Roman copies Chryselephantine statue Stood 38 feet tall Was at the heart of the Parthenon Holds winged Nike in her right hand (victory over the Persians) On sandals was depicted Amazonomachy (when Theseus drove the Amazons out of Athens) On inside of shield was painted gigantomachy All these references refer back to the defeat of the Persians by the Athenians
Helios and His Horsespediment of ParthenonClassical Greek 420 BCE Can see the arms of Helios rising out of the earth as his chariot pulls the sun across the sky -The male figure on the left is either Dionysus or Herakles. -The horses show signs of being awake and refreshed with the beginning of their day. -Natural flow within the shape of the pediment -Natural poses with the figures (no Archaic smile)
The Seated Goddessesspediment of the PartheneonClassical Greek420 BCE Most likely Aphrodite, Dione, and Hestia -The figures are in a reclining position to show an even more natural pose. -The sculptor was able to capture the anatomy associated with the female body. -The draperies across the bodies are a significant contrast to the texture of their skin, and there is a dramatic use of dark and light between the folds of the fabric. -Clinging wet drapery reveals the voluptuous bodies beneath
Nike Adjusting her Sandal from the Temple of Athena Nike, Classical Greekc. 420 BCE Graceful figure in high relief -Deeply incised drapery, wet to show the body of the female figure -Frozen narrative needs the viewer to add the information necessary to tell a story
ErechtheionClassical Greek c. 420 BCE Temple to Athena as well as smaller gods Celebrates the victory of Athena over Poseidon for the patronage of the city -Very asymmetrical (partially due to being built on uneven ground) -The porch on the south side has women who replace columns they are called caryatids. -Can see the shift in weight on the caryatids to look natural; however, they are still "stiff" enough to support the weight of the roof -Located on the Acropolis
Peloponnesian War Friction began to build up between Athens and the other city-states of Greece. Athens became the dominate power as in they dominates their neighbors and allies, both economically and militarily Sparta and her allies had enough and fought back. Athens, the strongest city-state in Greece prior to the war's beginning, was reduced to a state of near-complete subjection, while Sparta became established as the leading power of Greece. The economic costs of the war were felt all across Greece; poverty became widespread in the Peloponnese, while Athens found itself completely devastated, and never regained its pre-war prosperity. Greek warfare was transformed into an all-out struggle between city-states, complete with atrocities on a large scale. Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities, the Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece.
But how did this affect art? • In the 5th Century, Greeks believed they could impose order on their environment, create Perfect statues such as the Canon and discover the correct formulas for constructing temples, as in the Parthenon. • War, plague, famine brought about an end to the focus on Greek community and more of a focus on the individual and on real world appearances rather than on the ideal world of perfect beings/buildings • New Humanization of art- Praxiteles He did not reject the themes of the earlier Classical sculptors; rather his statues lost some of their superhuman perfection and started to become even more real
PraxitelesHermes and the Infant DionysusLate Classical Greek- 350 BCEKey Piece High Classical sculpture (fourth century) -See a natural "S-curve" to the body of Hermes as he relaxes from a walk. -Actually are able to see a relationship between an adult and child-more human -Able to see the different textures of skin, fabric, and hair carved out of marble -During this era, artists focus less on the major gods, and more on the minor ones. -The viewer must walk around the statue to understand its entirety. Not just frontal
PraxitelesAphrodite of KnidosLate Classical Greek 350 BCEKey Piece This was the first time Aphrodite was sculpted completely nude. -In previous art, if a woman was in the nude, she was of a very low class standing; here, a goddess! People were said to have openly fallen in love with her Described as having soft skin and wet dewy eyes. -Statue was once housed in a round temple and could only have been seen by someone who was peeking around columns to see her; voyeuristic -Not openly erotic -She adverts her gaze, does not challenge your gaze -She is trying to cover herself as she pulls the cloak off the water jug -Modest- a hand covers her pelvic region but you can still see pelvis
LysipposThe Scraper (Apoxymenos)Late Classical Greek 330 BCEKey Piece Breaks the dominance of frontal view, truly sculpture in the round, this creates a statue that must be viewed from all sides -Thinner form, smaller head, elongated body, sleek and lanky, eyes closely set, a break from the Praxiteles cannon -Athlete is scrapping off oil after a competition or bath -S-Curve -Arms extend into space -head is one-eighth of the body -even though it is truly a break from tradition the figure still maintains a Contrapposto stance
End of Classical Greece • Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE • The Greeks suffered a devastating loss- as a result they lost their independence to Phillip of Macedon • Phillip was assassinated- but his son Alexander took over