Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Energy. All organisms use energy to survive Cells in your body use energy to maintain the organism in which they make up Examples of different forms of energy. Light Energy. Heat Energy. Sound Energy. Elastic Energy. Electrical Energy.
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Energy • All organisms use energy to survive • Cells in your body use energy to maintain the organism in which they make up • Examples of different forms of energy
Cellular Energy • Cells get energy when the chemical bonds in food are broken such as glucose and starch. • The main form of cellular energy is Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP
Phosphates determine how much energy exists ADP: 2 phosphate groups
How Chemical Equations Work What goes in What comes out
Cellular Respiration: How we get ATP • ATP is the molecule we use to get energy. Now, we need a process in order to get a bunch of ATP so we can use it as energy.
Cellular Respiration: Step 1 • Starts in the cytoplasm with glycolysis • Take one molecule of glucose and through a series of chemical reactions, we get 2 ATP molecules. • Glucose = C6H12O6 • Glucose Chemical Reactions 2 ATP
Cellular Respiration: Step 2 (2 possibilities) • Before step 2 takes place, you must ask a question. “Is oxygen present?”
Oxygen present? YES • Step 2 if oxygen is present goes to a process called Aerobic Respiration • Aerobic literally means ‘living in air’ • Aerobic Respiration is divided into 2 parts
Aerobic Respiration: Part 1 • Part 1 is called the Krebs Cycle • This takes place in the mitochondria and produces 2 more ATP
Aerobic Respiration: Part 2 • Part 2 of Aerobic Respiration is called the Electron Transport Chain • Take place in the mitochondria as well but produces 34 more ATP • Total ATP produced: 36 • Calculate: 2 + 2 + 34 - 2 = 36 Amount used up during process Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Glycolysis
Chemical Equation for Aerobic Respiration 36 ATP Products Reactants
Oxygen present? No • If no oxygen is present, then Part 2 of Cellular Respiration goes to a process called Anaerobic Respiration • Produces only 2 ATP from one glucose molecule • Occurs in the cytoplasm • Two types of Anaerobic Respiration
Type 1: Lactic Acid Fermentation • Lactic acid builds up in your muscles after you do exercise.
Type 2: Alcoholic Fermentation • Used by plant cells and some microorganisms such as yeast • Produces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Other names are ethanol, pure alcohol, drinking alcohol, and grain alcohol
Common products made through alcoholic fermentation • Wine through grapes • Mead through honey • Beer, whiskey, vodka through grain • Rum through sugarcane • Bread rises due to the formation of carbon dioxide
Anaerobic Respiration Summary Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic Acid Glucose Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide Alcoholic Fermentation
Energy: the source • Cells get their energy from converting glucose into ATP. • Glucose gets its energy from the main source, which is the sun. • Living things are divided into two categories
Two types of living things • Heterotrophs: organisms that must eat other organisms to survive (consumers) • Autotrophs: Organisms that use the energy directly from the sun (producers)
Photosynthesis • The process that uses the energy from the sun to change water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. • The equation for Photosynthesis Inorganic: cannot consume Organic: CAN consume
Fixing Carbon • Photosynthesis ‘fixes’ carbon so we can eat it though a process called carbon fixation
Photosynthesis: Part 1 • Light dependent reactions • Must have light • Chlorophyll, the green pigment in chloroplasts, absorbs sunlight. • This energy is used to convert ADP to ATP • Water molecules are split to form oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons
The ADP cousin • NADP: a molecule similar to ADP that carries hydrogen ions to the next step which then becomes NADPH O2 6CO2 + 6H2O NADP CO2 H+
Photosynthesis: Part 2 • This stage is called the Calvin Cycle also called light independent reaction • Light is NOT needed here C6H12O6 CO2 + H+