Supported Scaffolds Scaffold User Training
9% of construction deaths are scaffold-related Scaffold falls injure 29,000 workers every year. 47% of all scaffold catastrophes and deaths are caused by defective scaffolds. Any missing or defective part makes a scaffold less safe. Scaffold Hazards Ladders and Scaffolds The danger of falling is most common.
Ladders and Scaffolds 15 X & L 1926.450 Subpart L - Scaffolds • 1926.450: Scope, application and definitions • 1926.451: General requirements • Covers the basic variables • 1926.452: Specific requirements • For each type of scaffold • 1926.453: Aerial lifts • 1926.454: Training • Anyone who works from a scaffold or who erects scaffolds must have training.
Supported scaffolds must have these features: How Do We Know a Scaffold Is Safe?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 17 X & L .451 General RequirementsFor All Scaffolds (a) Capacity • Support its own weight and 4 X the Maximum Intended Load (MIL). • . • Designed by a Qualified Person and built and loaded to design. • Some Criteria listed in Appendix 'A'
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 20 X & L (b) Platform Construction • Platforms fully planked or decked • Maximum 1” gaps • Maximum openings of 9½” if necessary • Platforms and walkways minimum 18” wide • Ladder jack, top plate bracket, roof bracket, and pump jack scaffold at least 12” wide • Guardrails and/or Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) for < 18” wide
Fully planked with scaffold-grade wood or metal. What Makes a Safe Platform? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 21 X & L
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 27 X & L (b) Platform Construction4 • Don’t paint wood, except ID on edges • Fully planked between front upright & guardrails • Don’t mix scaffold components used unless compatible & strength is maintained [Competent Person decision] • Don’t modify mixed scaffold components to make them fit [C.P. decision] • No components of dissimilar metals without Competent Person approval
Tie-Ins to the Building SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 30 X & L This 6-tier scaffold is is anchored to the building with rope through windows. A solid strut anchor is better, especially if not dependent upon friction attachments at both ends.
You can visually check scaffold alignment. Plumb, Level, Square SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 34 X & L Plumb: Vertical members stand perpendicular to horizon. Square: Horizontal and vertical members form right angles where they connect. Level: Horizontal members are parallel to horizon.
Foundation and Load Distribution? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 35 X & L
What’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold? SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 37 X & L Distribute loads evenly. Point load over uprights. Point Loading - When necessary, it should be done over uprights. Evenly distributed – A good practice! An unsafe practice!
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 38 X & L .451(e) Access • Must have safe access • No access by cross braces • Bottom rung not more than 24” high • From other surface if within 14" H, 24" V • Rest platforms at 35’ intervals • Safe access for erectors/dismantlers • Competent Person Decision • 22" Horizontals OK for Builders • Some end frames can be used for access.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 47 X & L (f) USE3 • No makeshift devices to increase height • The 'Drywall Bucket Rule' • No ladder to increase height except on 'large area' and: • Side thrust countered, platform secured • Ladder legs on same platform & secured • Platforms not to deflect > 1/60 of span
.454 Training Requirements SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 73 X & L • Your employer must train you.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 48 X & L .451(g) Fall Protection • Required at 10 foot height • PFAS instead of guardrails on some • Fall protection required when scaffold is greater than 14” away from work surface • PFAS for erectors/dismantlers where feasible • Toprails height = 38” to 45” • Crossbracing ‘X’ as top or midrail depending on height
Guardrails prevent work falls. Guardrails SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 49 X & L Only 33% of the scaffolds involved in accidents had guardrails. • Ideal height is 38 inches above work platform. • OSHA requires fall protection on platforms 10 feet or higher. Top rail must withstand a force of 200 pounds (or 100 pounds on suspension scaffolds).
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 53 X & L (h) Falling Object Protection • Hardhats required • Protect employees below • Barricades to exclude working below • Toe boards at edges of platforms • Allows panels and screens • Canopies allowed
Toeboard Options SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 54 X & L • Using extra planks on edge: • Wire in place • Maintain max. gap of ¼" • Wire or nail ends in place Job-made w/1"x 6" lumber: • Wire/nail/cleat in place • Lighter, easier to handle
Electrical Hazards SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 54 X & L Scaffolds shall remain a minimum of 10 feet away from energized power lines. All power tools and equipment shall be plugged into a GFCI Temporary lighting shall not be connected to the scaffold system by metal components
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 58 X & L Mobile Scaffolds3 • Plumb; Level square; Braces secured • Cross, horizontal & diagonal braces to prevent racking or collapse • Mobile scaffolds must comply with other frame requirements • Castors - positive lock on wheel and/or swivel • Force to move no more than 5 feet above base
.452(w) Mobile Scaffolds2 SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 59 X & L Horizontal and diagonal bracing required to prevent “racking”. Most manufacturers provide with fixed length.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 60 X & L Mobile Scaffolds4 • No platforms beyond base unless outriggers or equivalent for stability • Screwjacks or equivalent to level • Castor stems pinned or bolted • Make workers aware before moving
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 61 X & L Mobile Scaffolds4 • Stabilize to prevent tipping when moving • No riding unless: • Surface within 30 of level; no obstructions • Height: base width ratio = 2:1 or designed • Outriggers, if used, on both sides • No extensions beyond supports • Power used < 1 foot/second
Don’t allow tools, materials, or debris to collect on scaffold. Never, never throw or drop tools, materials, or equipment. Make sure connections are in place and completely tight. Do not stand on ties. Do not stand on guardrails or plank extensions. Do not overreach outside of the guardrails. Protect Yourself With Good Practice SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 71 X & L