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Global Responses to the Rise of the West

Global Responses to the Rise of the West

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Global Responses to the Rise of the West

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  1. Global Responses to the Rise of the West AP World History Uvalde High School

  2. History of Imperialism

  3. World in 1900

  4. British Empire in 1900 “The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”

  5. Dutch Empire

  6. German Empire in 1914

  7. India “The Jewel in the Crown” • 1661 1st British trade center at Bombay • 1690 British establish center at Calcutta • 1707 Start of Mughal decline • 1756-1763 Seven Years’ War • British East India Co. uses sepoys • 1857 Sepoy Rebellion • 1858 Beginning of the British Raj

  8. Indian Resistance to British Rule • Reforms • Ram Mohan Roy • Cooperation • Indian National Congress (1885) • Nationalism • Radical movement centered on Hinduism • Called for independence and revolts • Paved path for Gandhi, etc. Ram Mohan Roy

  9. Positive: Western education Social reforms Keep the caste system Technology Railroads Telegraph lines Brought into the global market economy Negative: Move towards cash crops lead to famines Drain India of resources Taxes used to pay for army and generous salaries for administrators Increase in chronic poverty Impact of British rule in India

  10. British Railways in India Left: the Darjeeling ExpressAbove: Queen Victoria station

  11. Famine in India 1877

  12. French Empire Light Blue: 1st French colonial empire; Dark Blue: 2nd French colonial empire

  13. French in Vietnam • 1600s Jesuit priests arrive in Vietnam; French trade with Vietnam follows • 1802 French help Gia Long unite Vietnam • 1820-1841 Minh Mang replaces Gia Long and begins to persecute Christians • Persecutions plus pressures in Europe provided justification for French conquest • By 1890s France controlled Vietnam (later would add Cambodia and Laos)

  14. Vietnamese Resistance • Guerrilla warfare – “Save the King Movement” • Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD) • Fail to create mass movement • Replaced by Communist Party of Vietnam (Viet Minh) • Dominated by Ho Chi Minh

  15. Bastille Day in Vietnam

  16. Imperialism in Africa Left: Africa in 1878 Right: Africa in 1914

  17. Berlin Conference (1884-1885)

  18. British Imperialism in South Africa • 1652 1st Dutch settlement at Cape Town • 1815 British annex Cape Town • 1830 Boers begin Great Trek • 1867 Diamonds discovered in Orange Free State • 1885 Gold discovered in Transvaal • 1899-1902 Boer Wars

  19. Images of Britain in Africa

  20. British in Imperialism in Egypt • 1798 Invasion of Egypt by Napoleon • 1805 Muhammad Ali and his successors modernize Egypt • Borrow heavily from England and France • Build Suez Canal • 1882 Nationalist uprisings threaten Egyptian government • Egypt becomes a protectorate of Great Britain

  21. Suez Canal

  22. Egyptian Responses • Reforms • Muhammad Ali • Nationalism • Arabs see British control of Egypt as double colonization • Dinshawi incident (1906) • Islamic Fundamentalism • Mahdi

  23. Legacy of the Mahdi Mahdi army of Muqtada al-Sadr in Iraq

  24. Ottoman Empire in the 19th c. • Called the “Sick Man of Europe” • Why? Just a few examples… • Power struggles between government, religious experts, Janissaries, and other elites • Ayan (landlords) skimmed tax revenue • Import of European manufactures caused a decline in the artisan class • Empire became economically dependent on Europe • External threats from Egypt, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Balkan nationalism • Greece gained its independence in 1830

  25. Ottoman Territorial Losses

  26. Ottoman Reforms • Early reforms of Selim III (1789-1807) resisted by Janissaries • Janissaries slaughtered by Mahmud II in 1826 • Tanzimat Reforms • Modernize military and bureaucracy • University education focusing on math & science • Western technology (telegraphs, railroads, etc.) • Constitution of 1876 • Few changes for lower class & women

  27. Resistance to Reforms & Revolt • Religious conservatives • Ulama • Individual sultans • Abdul Hamid (1878-1908) • Overthrown in 1908 • Ottoman Society for Union Progress • “Young Turks”—Nationalism • Establish a parliamentary system • Led Ottoman Empire into WWI

  28. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) • Founded by a Manchu warlord • Traditional Chinese dynasty • Qing Golden Age • Kangxi (1662-1722) • Yongzheng (1722-1735) • Qianlong (1735-1796) • Dynasty in declines after the death of Qianlong • White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804)

  29. China: Decline of a Civilization • Internal Breakdown • Opium War • Taiping Rebellion • Self-Strengthening Movement • Failure of Force • Sino-Japanese War • Boxer Rebellion • Chinese Revolution of 1912

  30. The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)

  31. The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)

  32. The 1st Opium War (1839-1842) Lin Zexu destroying opium. In the summer of 1939, Lin Zexu confiscated and destroyed 2.6 million pounds of opium. It took 500 laborers 22 days to destroy all of the opium.

  33. The 1st Opium War (1839-1842)

  34. Legacy of the Opium War • “Unequal Treaties” • Opens 5 ports to trade with Britain • British gain control of Hong Kong • British gain extraterritoriality • Does NOT address sale of opium Chinese hero, Lin Zexu

  35. Causes of the Taiping Rebellion • Anti-Manchu sentiment • Strongest among southern laborers who were mostly Han Chinese • Caused by a myriad of problems • Natural disasters, economic collapse, government corruption and the defeat in the Opium War • Leadership of Hong Xiuquan • Brother of Jesus? Statue of Taiping leader Hong Xiuquan

  36. Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) Hong Xiuquan’s army was able to seize 44 Chinese cities including the Southern capital of Nanjing (picture above).

  37. Aftermath of the Taiping Rebellion • Self-Strengthening Movement • Modernize the army • Improve infrastructure • Relied on foreign investment • Resisted by Neo-Confucian scholars and Dowager Empress Cixi (1861-1908) • Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) Dowager Empress Cixi, “the Dragon Lady”

  38. Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895

  39. Western Spheres of Influence

  40. Boxer Rebellion (1900)

  41. Fall of the Qing Dynasty • Death of Dowager Cixi • Sun Yat-sen’s 3 Principles of the People • Nationalism, Democracy, and People’s Welfare • Qing falls in 1912 • End of the imperial system • Replaced by the Republic of China • Sun Yat-sen named 1st president Sun Yat-sen

  42. Decline of Tokugawa Shogunate • By early 19th century, Japanese society was in turmoil • Declining agricultural productivity • Harsh taxes on peasants • Periodic crop failures, famine, and starvation • Samurai and daimyo are in debt to merchants • Some Positives • Highest literacy rate outside of the West

  43. Challenge of the West • Arrival of Matthew Perry (1853) • Unequal Treaties • Similar to the treaties signed by the Qing dynasty • Perry’s “Black Ships” steam into Tokyo Bay • Force the Japanese to establish trade and diplomatic relations with the U.S. Japanese depiction of Admiral Matthew Perry

  44. Internal Conflict • Shogunate’s deals with West viewed as dishonorable • Popular slogan: “Revere the emperor, expel the barbarians” • Demands for reform include lowering rice prices & expulsion of foreign “barbarians” • Revolution? • Two minor wars between supporters of emperor and supporters of the shogun • January 3, 1868, the last shogun abdicated and the shogunate was destroyed

  45. Modernization: Meiji Restoration • Abolish feudal order • Daimyo removed from power • Samurai class is abolished • Constitutional government • Constitution of 1889 establishes constitutional monarchy with legislature • Emperor commanded armed forces, named prime minister, and appoint the cabinet • Suffrage limited—only 5% could vote in 1890

  46. New Meiji Government Left: Structure of Meiji Governement; Above: Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor

  47. Modernization: Meiji Restoration • Japanese industrialization • Modernize the military, transportation, communication, education, etc. • Creation of zaibatsu • Combination of state initiative and private investment • Consolidates economic power into the hands of a few powerful families • Many companies started by men of samurai origins

  48. Japan’s Economic Growth