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PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case, Ray C. Fair & Sharon M. Oster. ; ; . Demand and Supply Applications. Prepared by:. Fernando & Yvonn Quijano. Demand and Supply Applications. PART I INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS. 4. CHAPTER OUTLINE.

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PowerPoint Lectures for

Principles of Economics, 9e

By

Karl E. Case, Ray C. Fair & Sharon M. Oster

; ;

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Demand and SupplyApplications

Prepared by:

Fernando & Yvonn Quijano

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Demand and SupplyApplications

PART IINTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS

4

CHAPTER OUTLINE

The Price System: Rationing and Allocating ResourcesPrice RationingConstraints on the Market and Alternative Rationing MechanismsPrices and the Allocation of ResourcesPrice Floors

Supply and Demand Analysis: An Oil Import FeeSupply and Demand and Market EfficiencyConsumer SurplusProducer SurplusCompetitive Markets Maximize the Sum of Producer and Consumer SurplusPotential Causes of DeadweightLoss from Under- and Overproduction

Looking Ahead

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Price Rationing

price rationing The process by which the market system allocates goods and services to consumers when quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied.

 FIGURE 4.1 The Market for Lobsters

Suppose in 2008 that 15,000 square miles of lobstering waters off the coast of Maine are closed.

The supply curve shifts to the left. Before the waters are closed, the lobster market is in equilibrium at the price of $11.50 and a quantity of 81 million pounds. The decreased supply of lobster leads to higher prices, and a new equilibrium is reached at $16.10 and 60 million pounds (point B).

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Price Rationing

 FIGURE 4.2 Market for a Rare Paining

There is some price that will clear any market, even if supply is strictly limited. In an auction for a unique painting, the price (bid) will rise to eliminate excess demand until there is only one bidder willing to purchase the single available painting. Some estimate that the Mona Lisa would sell for $600 million if auctioned.

The adjustment of price is the rationing mechanism in free markets. Price rationing means that whenever there is a need to ration a good—that is, when a shortage exists—in a free market, the price of the good will rise until quantity supplied equals quantity demanded—that is, until the market clears.

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Constraints on the Market and Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

On occasion, both governments and private firms decide to use some mechanism other than the market system to ration an item for which there is excess demand at the current price.

  • Regardless of the rationale, two things are clear:
  • 1. Attempts to bypass price rationing in the market and to use alternative rationing devices are much more difficult and costly than they would seem at first glance.
  • 2. Very often, such attempts distribute costs and benefits among households in unintended ways.
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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Constraints on the Market and Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

Oil, Gasoline, and OPEC

price ceiling A maximum price that sellers may charge for a good, usually set by government.

 FIGURE 4.3 Excess Demand (Shortage) Created by a Price Ceiling

In 1974, a ceiling price of $0.57 cents per gallon of leaded regular gasoline was imposed. If the price had been set by the interaction of supply and demand instead, it would have increased to approximately $1.50 per gallon.

At $0.57 per gallon, the quantity demanded exceeded the quantity supplied. Because the price system was not allowed to function, an alternative rationing system had to be found to distribute the available supply of gasoline.

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Constraints on the Market and Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

queuing Waiting in line as a means of distributing goods and services: a nonprice rationing mechanism.

favored customers Those who receive special treatment from dealers during situations of excess demand.

ration coupons Tickets or coupons that entitle individuals to purchase a certain amount of a given product per month.

black market A market in which illegal trading takes place at market-determined prices.

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Constraints on the Market and Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

NCAA March Madness: College Basketball’s National Championship

 FIGURE 4.4 Supply of and Demand for a Concert in 2007

The face value of a ticket to the Justin Timberlake concert on September 16, 2007, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles was $50. The Staples Center holds 20,000. The supply curve is vertical at 20,000.

At $50, the quantity supplied is below the quantity demanded. The diagram shows that the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied would be equal at $300.

The Web shows that one ticket could be worth $16,000.

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Constraints on the Market and Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

No matter how good the intentions of private organizations and governments, it is very difficult to prevent the price system from operating and to stop willingness to pay from asserting itself. Every time an alternative is tried, the price system seems to sneak in the back door. With favored customers and black markets, the final distribution may be even more unfair than that which would result from simple price rationing.

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Prices and the Allocation of Resources

Price changes resulting from shifts of demand in output markets cause profits to rise or fall. Profits attract capital; losses lead to disinvestment. Higher wages attract labor and encourage workers to acquire skills. At the core of the system, supply, demand, and prices in input and output markets determine the allocation of resources and the ultimate combinations of things produced.

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

The Price Mechanism at Work for Shakespeare

Prices and the Allocation of Resources

Every summer, New York Cityputs on free performances ofShakespeare in the Park.

The true cost of a ticket is $0 plus the opportunity cost of the time spent in line.

Students can produce tickets relatively cheaply by waiting in line. They can then turn around and sell those tickets to the high-wage Shakespeare lovers.

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The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources

Price Floors

price floor A minimum price below which exchange is not permitted.

minimum wage A price floor set for the price of labor.

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Supply and Demand and Market Efficiency

Consumer Surplus

consumer surplus The difference between the maximum amount a person is willing to pay for a good and its current market price.

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Supply and Demand and Market Efficiency

Producer Surplus

producer surplus The difference

between the current market price and the full cost of production for the firm.

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REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS

black market

favored customers

minimum wage

price ceiling

price floor

price rationing

queuing

ration coupons

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