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WELCOME!! • Please complete individually the sheet “What Is My Style and What Is Your Style?” • On a Post-it, please write any questions you need addressed through the training today.
Co-Teaching for General Education Teachers: Sharing the Experience
Goals • Discuss the belief system that underlines the elements and principles of successful co-teaching. • Understand the role of both teachers in the co-teaching model to meet the expectations of school site.
Goals (continued) • Demonstrate knowledge of how various personality types see the world. • Explore relationships with a network of teachers that provide support and opportunities for dialogue.
Goals (continued) • Explore and outline ways to plan, present and implement co-teaching strategies to develop a collaborative relationship within the classroom. • Develop a support system for co-teachers.
Co-Teaching Defined “A partnership in which two educators collaborate and plan in a cooperative fashion to jointly and directly teach students.” Marilyn Friend The Power of 2
Co-Teaching: Activity One The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8
Determining what two teachers can do together that one person cannot easily do alone. An attitude of sink or swim together, and learn by sharing. Integrating students but adults still maintain responsibility for their own separate populations. Homogeneous grouping of all at-risk students in one classroom with two teachers. Co-Teaching: What It Is, What It Is NOT
Mutual planning and evaluation of learner outcomes and proposed strategies. Determining and defining roles and responsibilities for working together in different capacities. Collaborative teaching without collaborative planning. One person delivering content; the other is responsible for crowd control. Co-Teaching: What It Is, What It Is NOT
Taking time to debrief and reflect on instruction. Use of effective communication and conflict management skills. Use of peer coaching. Creating learned helplessness. Pulling students to the back of the room rather than forming groups according to needs. Parallel teaching without communication. Co-Teaching: What It Is, What It Is NOT
Sharing of ideas, strategies, and techniques. Supporting and enhancing each other’s learning. One teaches while the other takes a break. Co-Teaching: What It Is, What It Is NOT
Know Yourself The first step to successful co-teaching is getting to know yourself (e.g., beliefs, skills, strengths, knowledge, experience, and personal stressors).
Working Together: Tools forCollaborative Teaching • Achiever • Persuader • Supporter • Analyst Interpersonal Styles
Working Together: Tools forCollaborative Teaching Complete individually “Pulling Together for the Future”(first column only) on page 6 and “As a Partner or a Team Player” on page 7.
Know Your Partner Now that you know yourself better, let’s take some time to get to know your co-teacher(s).
Know Your Partner • Share with your co-teacher(s) what you wrote about yourself. • Be sure to fill in your partner’s side of the chart.
Know Your Partner Discuss and chart the following: • Commonalities • Differences • Styles
Reflection Write a reflection on: How will this information help you with co-teaching?
Know How to Work with Your Partner Most professionals agree that co-teaching must be based on teachers’ shared fundamental beliefs about their teaching, their students, and their classroom expectations.
Collaboration Is Key • Deliberate • Structured • Systematic • Ongoing
Co-teaching Beliefs that Lead to a Collaborative Working Relationship Non-negotiables • Respect each other. • Leave your pride at the door. • Spend time talking and getting to know each other’s skills, interests and educational philosophies.
Non-negotiables • Avoid disagreeing with or undermining one another in front of the students. • Agree to disagree (professionally). • Both teachers must take a lead role in the class. • Both teachers must work with all students.
Non-negotiables • Instructional interactions reflect both teachers’ professionalism. • Know each other’s strengths and weaknesses. • Clearly define classroom roles, responsibilities and expectations.
Guidelines for Meetings • Arrive on time. • Establish priorities, assign tasks and set timelines. • Bring relevant information and materials. • Create an agenda and stick to it.
Guidelines for Meetings • Review content prior to meeting. • Think creatively. • Respect all contributions. • Meet weekly. • Conclude your meeting with a celebration of success.
Guidelines for Communication • All meetings with families should reflect participation from both teachers. • Both teachers’ names should be posted on the classroom door, board and correspondence.
Guidelines for Communication • Develop teacher-to-teacher signals that can be used during instruction (e.g., when it’s time to move on, when extra time is needed, when teachers need to briefly meet). • Create consistent teacher-to-student signals (e.g., to indicate transitions, to gain attention, to make an announcement).
Guidelines for Planning • Weekly co-planning is based on regularly scheduled meetings, rather than “fitting it in.” • Take turns leading in planning and facilitating. • Know the content.
Guidelines for Planning • During planning, focus on content goals, the learners, and effective teaching strategies. • Find out who is the expert in various content to be taught. • Each teacher must maintain his/her own copy of daily lesson plans, grade book, etc.
Identify Personal “Non-Negotiables” • Deal with the “little” things first. • These typically become the deal-breakers down the road. • Preventing road blocks early can make your lives easier.
Instructional content and expectations for students. Planning. Instructional format. Parity, or how it will be clear that both educators have the same status in the classroom. Space. Noise and each educator’s tolerance for it. Instructional routines. Organizational routines. The definition of “help”. Discipline procedures. Safety matters. Feedback. Student evaluation, including grading. Teaching chores. Substitute issues. Confidentiality. Pet peeves. Topics to Discuss
Co-Teaching Approaches • In order for you to be successful as a teaching team, it is important that you understand some of the most effective methods used in co-teaching. Six of the most common approaches to co-teaching are: • One teach, one observe • Station teaching • Parallel teaching • Alternative teaching • Teaming • One teach, one assist
One Teach, One Observe • When to use: • In new co-teaching situations • When questions arise about specific students • To check student progress • To access behavior • Amount of planning –low • Sample applications: • Which students initiate conversations in cooperative groups? • Which students do/do not begin work in a timely manner? • What does ________ do when he/she is confused during an assignment?
Station Teaching • When to use: • When content is complex but not hierarchical • In lessons in which part of planned instruction is review • When instruction is comprised of several topics • Amount of Planning–Medium • Sample Applications: • In social studies to examine the geography, economy, and culture of a region or country • In math, to teach a new process while reviewing applications of other concepts already presented
Parallel Teaching • When to use: • When a lower adult-student ratio is needed to improve instructional efficiency • To foster student participation in discussions • For activities such as drill and practice, re-teaching, and test review • Amount of Planning –Medium • Sample Applications: • More students would have a chance to share their alternative ending to the story if they are split into two groups. • Student use of the science materials could be more closely monitored if the group is divided in half.
Alternative Teaching • When to use: • In situations where students’ mastery of concepts taught or about to be taught varies • When extremely high levels of mastery are expected for all students • When enrichment is desired • When some students are working in a parallel curriculum • Amount of Planning –High • Sample Applications: • The large group completes an assignment related to the concepts just taught; the small group receives additional direct instruction. • The large group checks homework; the small group is pre-taught vocabulary related to the day’s lesson. • The large group is working on projects in cooperative groups; the small group is being assessed. All students will be assessed across two days.
Teaming • When to use: • When two heads are better than one or experience is comparable or complementary • During a lesson in which instructional conversation is appropriate • Amount of Planning –High • Sample Applications: • In science, one teacher explains the experiment while the other demonstrates using the necessary materials. • In social studies, the teachers debate U.S. foreign policy. • In English, the teachers act out a scene from a piece of literature. • One teacher talks while the other demonstrates note-taking on the board or overhead projector.
One Teach, One Assist • When to use: • When the lesson lends itself to delivery by one teacher • When one teacher has particular expertise for the lesson • In new co-teaching situations • In lessons stressing a process in which student work needs close monitoring • Amount of Planning – Low • Sample Applications: • Are all students following as they learn how to take notes? • “This is my absolute favorite topic to teach. Am I wrong to want to teach it myself?”
Video Clip: The Power of 2 As we watch the Power of 2, please use page 18, “Analyzing Co-Teaching Approaches”, to take notes on each of the six approaches to collaborative teaching.
Implementing • Working with your co-teacher(s), complete the column “Specific Application for My Classroom” from page 18. Analyzing Co-Teaching Approaches. • With your co-teacher(s), analyze your current teaching practices. Using the “Next Steps” format, page 21, identify practices you will need to stop, will need to start and will want to continue.
Sharing the Experience A wonderful aspect of co-teaching is that it allows you to take risks, learn from each other, and grow as professionals. Co-teaching provides a safety net when you take risks in your instruction. When you try something new and it doesn’t work, you have another teacher in the room who can step in with another technique or lesson that works, or point out the area of difficulty, or assist in redirecting the lesson . . .
Co-teaching is an experience that is as good as you allow it to be. You have the opportunity to work with another educator daily. Make the most of it. Enjoy! Natalie Marston Charles County, Maryland
Reflection • How will today’s discussions change your co-teaching approaches? • Which approach(es) do you feel will most successfully meet the needs of your students?
References The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8. (n.d.). Power point presentation for teachers. In Co-teaching (resources). Retrieved March 1, 2007 from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/index.php/category/co-teaching/http://www.floridainclusionnetwork.com/ Cook, L. & Friend, M. (2004, April 29). Co-teaching approaches. In Co-teaching: Principles, practices, and pragmatics. Presented at the April 2004 New Mexico Public Education Department Quarterly Special Education Meeting. Retrieved March 1, 2007, fromhttp://www.ped.state.nm.us/seo/library/qrtrly.0404.coteaching.lcook.pdf Cook, L. & Friend, M. (2004, April 29). The pragmatics of co-teaching. In Co-Teaching: Principles, practices, and pragmatics. Presented at the April 2004 New Mexico Public Education Department Quarterly Special Education Meeting. Retrieved March 1, 2007 from http://www.ped.state.nm.us/seo/library/qrtrly.0404.coteaching.lcook.pdf DeBoer, A. & Fister, S. (1995). Working together: Tools for collaborative teaching. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. Forum on Education (Producer). (2005). The power of 2 with Marilyn Friend [Motion picture]. (Available from National Professional Resources, Inc. 25 South Regent Street, Port Chester, NY 10573) Friend, M. (2005). The power of 2: Making a difference through co-teaching (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: The Forum on Education. Marston, N. (n.d.). 6 steps to successful co-teaching: Helping special and regular education teachers work together. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from the National Education Association Web site: http://www.nea.org/teachexperience/spedk031113.html