Bellringer • Name a biotic factor in a forest. • Name two limiting factors for a population of lions. • What is carrying capacity? • A mouse eats acorns what is a mouse called in the food web? (Producer, Consumer, Decomposer)
Competition • There are three major types of interactions among organisms: • Competition • Predation • Symbiosis What are three major types of interactions among organisms?
Competition • Different species can share the same habitat and food requirements. • Competition is the struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same limited resource. • In any ecosystem, there is a limited amount of food, water and shelter. • Organisms that survive have adaptations that enable them to reduce competition. What is competition? What do organisms have to do in order to reduce competition?
An adaptation is a change that helps an organism, such as a plant or animal, survive in its environment.
Predation What is predation? • Predation is an interaction in which one organism kills another for food. • The organism that does the killing for food is the predator. • The organisms that is killed for food is the prey. What is the relationship between predator and prey?
Bellringer • What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? • Name three adaption that prey use to protect themselves against predators. • Who are nature’s recyclers?
Symbiosis • Symbiosis – is a close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species. • There are three types of symbiotic relationships: • Mutualism • Commensalism • Parasitism What is symbiosis? What are the three types of symbiotic relationships?
Mutualism What is Mutualism? • Mutualism – A relationship in which both species benefit. • Example: • The relationship between the Saguaro Cactus and Long Eared Bats. • Cactus flowers provide bats with food • The cactus benefits because the bats carry pollen from cactus to cactus on their noses.
Mutualism A relationship in which both organisms benefit. They help each other. Ex. A relationship between a butterfly and a flower Clownfish and Sea Anemone Butterfly and Flower
Commensalism • Commensalism – Is a relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither helped nor harmed. • Example – • The red-tailed hawks’ interaction with the saguaro cactus . • The hawks benefit by having a place to build their nests. • The cactus is not affected by the hawks. What is commensalism?
The Remora fish attaches to the shark and gets a free ride. Commensalism Birds build nests in trees.
Commensalism • Commensalism is not very common in nature because species are usually either helped or harmed a little by any interaction.
Parasitism • Parasitism – a relationship when one organism is helped and the other is harmed. • The organism that benefits is called a parasite. • The organism that the parasite lives on or in is known as the host. What is parasitism? What does a parasitic relationship consist of?
Wasp eggs on back of caterpillar. Parasitism Sea lampreys feed on fluids of other fish. Mosquito biting a human.
Parasitism • Common parasites are fleas, ticks and leeches. • These parasites have adaptation that enable them to attach to their host and feed on their blood. • Other parasites live inside the host’s body such as tapeworms, that live inside the digestive systems of dogs, wolves, and some other mammals.
Parasitism • Unlike predators, a parasite does not usually kill the organism it feeds on.