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Metamodel Framework for Ontology

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  1. Metamodel Framework for Ontology Keqing He, Yixin Jing, Yangfan He State Key Laboratory of Software Engineering Wuhan University P.R.China hekeqing@public.wh.hb.cn yxjing930@hotmail.com heyangfan927@hotmail.com

  2. Content • Introduction of ISO/IEC WG32 Subject MMFI • Introduction of Metamodel Framework for Ontology • MMF for Ontology Definition • Future works

  3. Introduction of ISO/IEC WG32 Subject 19763 -----------Metamodel Framework Interoperability

  4. Intention • Various types of metamodels spreading all over domains ebXML Registry, UDDI, 11179 Registry…… • Confliction brings obstacle to communication and exchange between different information resources • The lack of standardization to specify common bases for consistent development and registration of metamodels

  5. Intention Registering and sharing of various type of themodeling constructs such as models, ontologies, Identification scheme, Metadata or Mapping transformation rules, rather than standardizing the defining scheme for the modeling constructs.

  6. Registry Federation with Metamodel Framework

  7. Abstraction Layer where MMF Resides in Metamodel Framework M3 Metamodel M2 MetaModel Metamodel Pattern : Model Model Stereotype : Modeling M1 Model Model Facility Template: Model Modeling Constructs M0 Universe of Discourse

  8. Metamodel Framework Architecture MOF 11179 MDR Metamodel Framework Core Model Metamodel Framework for Mapping Metamodel Framework for Modeling Constructs Metamodel Framework for Ontology

  9. Overviews of Working Draft Part-1: Reference Model(MOF & 11179-3) Part-2 : Metamodel framework core model Part-3: Metamodel framework for Ontology Part-4: Metamodel framework for model mapping Part-5: Metamodel framework for Model Constructs Part-6: Registration Procedure

  10. Introduction of Metamodel Framework for Ontology

  11. Problem to be addressed • Since ontology describing tools among different developers don’t adopt the same way outlining how an ontology structure is organized, the interoperability between them is blocked • MDR by far doesn’t support ontology metadata registry, while ontology data rising rapidly on internet

  12. Problem to be addressed • Core model has enhanced model registry facility, but not particularly designed for ontology

  13. Core Model ---foundation of our work MOF

  14. Core Model ---foundation of our work 11179-3

  15. Core Model ---foundation of our work MOF overlap CoreModel 11179-3

  16. DAML+OIL R D F S R D F X M L Ontology Representation Manners • OWL --- a revision of the DAML+OIL web ontology language incorporating lessons learned from the design and application of DAML+OIL. • CG, KIF +computed classes, equivalence, etc. extends + subclasses/subproperties +object graph structure syntax

  17. RDF Class Hierarchy

  18. isOfType DAML+OIL Metamodel

  19. Ontology Definition Metamodel(ODM) • Status: OMG’s RFP • Start point of ODM is OWL • ODM is MOF-compliant

  20. MMF for Ontology Definition

  21. OntoConceptDomain OntoConceptDomain Biology • OntoConceptDomain defines the concept boundary of ontology, identifying the universe of discourse • It resides in mind, and is a collection of concept domain items, named OntoConcept (introduced later) • It is independent of representation

  22. OntoConcept Animal <OntoConceptDomain> Biology having Plant Virus OntoConcept

  23. OntoConcept<continued> • OntoConcept is a metaclass identifying a namespace of ontologies to distinct OntoSelection(introduced later) • The instance of a OntoConcept is a set of OntoConcept Items, which are expressed by OntoSelection • It is also independent of representation

  24. Web OntoConcept<continued> Ontology Meta-model Framework-OntoConcept complying with complying with having same concept Well-formed Ontology Expressed in manner A Mapping Well-formed Ontology Expressed in manner B Disordered Information

  25. OntoConceptDomain & OntoConcept

  26. Eat Animal Carnivore OntoInstance <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“Eat"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#carnivore" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Animal" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> OWL <OntoConceptDomain> Biology expressed by C G-(DF) C G I F (Eat [Carnivore] [Animal]) OntoInstance

  27. OntoInstance<continued> • OntoInstance is a specification of a particular ontology concept domain • OntoInstances are governed by Onto-ConceptDomain and designate values of OntoConceptDomain • OntoInstance is represented by various of approaches, such as OWL, CG, KIF etc.

  28. OntoInstance<continued>

  29. OntoExpression • OntoExpression is the meta definition of approach through which OntoInstance specify a OntoConceptDomain. • OntoExpression is independent of ontology domain. • OntoExpression defines most general concept appearing in ontology.

  30. OntoExpression<continued> • OntoExpression defines the meta concept which we want to register in system, including terms and relationship between them. • While defining OntoExpression, we reference to ODM, because we hope to accept various ontology expressions as many as possible

  31. OntoKernel OntoProperty OntoClass Ontology Data OntoIndividual OntoExpression Packages

  32. Biology living organism that is not an animal, which grows in the earth and usually has a stem, leaves and roots Plant Comment Animal OntoKernel-Example Ontology AnnotationProperty OntologyConstruct

  33. OntoKernel Package Diagram This package define basic element in a ontology

  34. Ontology - Example A B Furniture Manufactory Biology Plant Materials import Tree TreeWood Grass Animal Paint OntologyProperty

  35. Ontology Package Diagram This package define relationship between ontologies

  36. OntoClass - Example OntologyClass Human Beings sub-of Parent Female Male disjointWith intersectionOf Dad Father equivalentWith OntologyClassRelation

  37. OntoClass Package Diagram This package define class in ontology

  38. OntoProperty-Example DatatypeProperty ObjectProperty

  39. OntoProperty Package Diagram This package define 2 kinds of property in ontology

  40. OntoIndividual Package Diagram This package define individual appearing in ontology • Class extension of Thing is the set of all individuals. Every class is a subclass of Thing. • Class extension of Nothing is the empty set. Nothing is the subclass of every class.

  41. OntoSelection OntoConcept Cat eat mouse OntoSelection(by OWL) OntoInstance(by OWL) <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“Eat"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Cat" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Mouse" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“Eat"> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Carnivore" /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Animal" /> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Cat"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=“#Carnivore" /> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Mouse"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=“#Animal" /> </owl:Class>

  42. OntoSelection • OntoSelection designate a selection from the OntoInstance based on user requirement, corresponding to the OntoConcept • An instance of the OntoSelection is a concrete OntoInstance that is a value of the OntoConceptDomain related to the specific OntoConcept

  43. OntoSelection Registry OntoSelection B OntoSelection A OntoConcept OntoInstance

  44. inherit Overview of MMF for Ontology ModelDomain(from Core) OntoConceptDomain OntoConcept 1 0..n 1 1 ModelConstruct(from Core) 0..n 0..n 1 0..n 0..n OntoInstance OntoSelection OntoExpression 1 ModelInstance(from Core) OWLExpression CGExpression

  45. Future Work • Adjust with the change of Core Model • Study the registry of ontology not only on different expression, but on different aspects, such as up-level ontology, process ontology • This presentation is primary idea of new version of draft. Completed draft would be finished in near future