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Atoms, Elements & the Periodic Table. Interpret information on a periodic table to understand how elements are grouped. What do you remember from 6 th grade?. The periodic table shows approximately 120 known elements Elements can be classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids

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atoms elements the periodic table

Atoms, Elements & the Periodic Table

Interpret information on a periodic table to understand how elements are grouped.

what do you remember from 6 th grade
What do you remember from 6th grade?
  • The periodic table shows approximately 120 known elements
  • Elements can be classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
  • When two or more elements combine, they form a compound
what are the elements made of
What are the elements made of?
  • Element-the simplest pure substance.
  • Elements are made of atoms, and each element’s atoms are unique to that element
  • Atoms-the basic building blocks of all matter. They are the smallest particles into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance.
  • Atoms are made of 3 types of particles-protons, neutrons and electrons
periodic table organized elements
PERIODIC TABLE =ORGANIZED ELEMENTS
  • Elements are:
    • PURE-Made of like atoms of that element
    • Identified by it’s atomic number (# of protons)
    • Arrangement of electrons determines the elements properties (such as conductivity and reactivity).
how the elements are arranged
How the Elements are Arranged

Groups/Families:

Similar properties

Periods/Rows:

Increasing atomic number/mass

groups families
Groups/Families
  • Columns of the periodic table that consist of elements that have the same number of valence electrons.
    • Groups 1 and 2 - same # as group
    • Groups 13-18 - 10 - the group #
    • Groups 3-12 - no general rule.
periods
Periods
  • Rows of the periodic table that consist of elements with the same number of electron clouds or energy levels.
alkali metals
Alkali Metals
  • Group #1
  • All metals
  • 1 Valence Electron
  • Very reactive
alkaline earth metals
Alkaline-Earth Metals
  • Group #2
  • All Metals
  • 2 Valence Electrons
  • Very reactive but less than group #1.
transition metals
Transition Metals
  • Groups # 3-12
  • All metals
  • 1-2 valence electrons
  • Less reactive than group #2
  • Also contain lanthanide and actinide series (radioactive/unstable).
groups 13 16
Groups # 13-16
  • Elements change from metals to nonmetals and include the metalloids.
  • Atoms have 10 fewer valence electrons than the group #.
    • Boron Group #13 - 3 valence electrons
    • Carbon Group #14 - 4 valence electrons
    • Nitrogen Group #15 - 5 valence electrons
    • Oxygen Group #16 - 6 valence electrons
halogens
Halogens
  • Group 17
  • All nonmetals
  • 7 valence electrons
  • Very reactive
    • Only need to gain 1 more electron.
noble gases
Noble Gases
  • Group # 18
  • All nonmetals
  • 8 valence electrons - except helium only has 2.
  • Unreactive
    • Have a full outer electron cloud (energy level).
hydrogen stands alone
Hydrogen stands alone

1 valence electron

Very reactive

Reacts violently with Oxygen under the right conditions.

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