ch 39 plant responses to internal and external signals n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Ch 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Ch 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 23
lawrence-emerson

Ch 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

90 Views
Download Presentation
Ch 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Ch 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals

  2. Figure 38.4 Embryos Mobilize Their Reserves

  3. Plant hormones • Hormone: chemical signals that coordinate parts of an organism; produced in one part of the body and then transported to other parts of the body; low concentrations • Tropism: movement toward or away from a stimulus

  4. Auxin Affects Plant Growth and Form • Phototropism is the tendency for plants to grow toward light sources. • In the 1800s, Charles Darwin and his son Francis experimented with canary grass seedlings grown in the dark. • They found that when the top millimeter of the coleoptile of a grass plant is covered, the plant cannot respond to the direction of light. • The photoreceptors are in the coleoptile tip. However, the bending takes place in the growing region below the tip. A signal must pass from the tip to the growing region.

  5. Figure 38.7 The Darwins’ Phototropism Experiment (Part 1)

  6. Figure 38.7 The Darwins’ Phototropism Experiment (Part 2)

  7. Auxin Affects Plant Growth and Form • The movement of auxin is polar—it travels in just one direction along a line from apex to base. • This movement is not due to gravity. The apex to base direction is not reversed by inverting plants. • Polar transport depends on auxin anion efflux carriers, membrane proteins found only at the basal ends of cells. • At pH 7 in the cytoplasm, auxin exists as an anion. Auxin anions can leave the cell only by way of the protein carriers.

  8. Auxin Affects Plant Growth and Form • The lateral redistribution of auxin is involved in both phototropism and gravitropism. • Redistribution occurs when the carrier proteins move to one side of the cell and allow exit of auxin only on that side. • When light strikes a coleoptile from one side, the auxin moves to the shaded side, growth on that side is increased, and the seedling bends towards the light. • If a shoot is tipped over, auxin moved to thelower side and causes more rapid growth there. The seedling bends upward.

  9. Figure 38.10 Plants Respond to Light and Gravity

  10. Auxin Affects Plant Growth and Form • Auxin affects plant growth in many ways: • Initiating root growth • Inhibiting leaf abscission • Maintaining apical dominance • Promoting stem elongation and inhibiting root elongation • Controlling fruit development

  11. Auxin Affects Plant Growth and Form • Shoot cuttings of many plant species develop profuse roots when the cut surfaces are dipped into an auxin solution. • This observation suggests a role for auxin in the initiation of lateral roots. • Commercial rooting powders usually contain synthetic auxin.

  12. Auxin Affects Plant Growth and Form • Apical dominance is the tendency for lateral buds to remain dormant. Apical buds inhibit the growth of lateral buds. • Removing apical buds stimulates lateral bud growth. • If auxin is applied to the cut surface in place of the apical bud, the lateral buds are inhibited.

  13. Figure 38.12 Auxin and Apical Dominance

  14. Auxin Affects Plant Growth and Form • Synthetic auxins have been produced and studied. • One of them, called 2,4-D, is lethal to eudicots at concentrations that are harmless to monocots. • This auxin has been used as a selective herbicide on lawns—grasses are monocots, and most of the “weeds” in lawns are eudicots. • 2,4-D takes a long time to break down, however, so it pollutes the environment.

  15. Auxin Affects Plant Growth and Form • Auxin stimulates stem elongation but inhibits root elongation. Why different organs respond differently to the same hormone is a subject of current research. • In many species, treatment of unfertilized ovaries with auxin or gibberellins causes fruit formation. • This process is called parthenocarpy and is useful in the production of seedless fruits.

  16. Gibberellins • Location: meristems of apical buds and roots, young leaves, embryo • Function: germination of seed and bud; stem elongation; leaf growth; flowering (bolting); fruit development; root growth and differentiation

  17. Cytokinins • Zeatin • Location: roots (and actively growing tissues) • Function: root growth and differentiation; cell division and growth; germination; delay senescence (aging); apical dominance (w/ auxin)

  18. Figure 38.5 The Effect of Gibberellins on Dwarf Plants

  19. Daily and Seasonal Responses • Circadian rhythm (24 hour periodicity) • Photoperiodism (phytochromes) • Short-day plant: light period shorter than a critical length to flower (flower in late summer, fall, or winter; poinsettias, chrysanthemums) • Long-day plant: light period longer than a critical length to flower (flower in late spring or early summer; spinach, radish, lettuce, iris) • Day-neutral plant: unaffected by photoperiod (tomatoes, rice, dandelions) • Critical night length controls flowering

  20. Phytochromes • Plant pigment that measures length of darkness in a photoperiod (red light) • Pr (red absorbing) 660nm • Pfr (far-red absorbing) 730nm

  21. Figure 39.12 The Effect of Interrupted Days and Nights (Part 1)

  22. Figure 39.15 Evidence for a Flowering Hormone (Part 1)

  23. Figure 39.15 Evidence for a Flowering Hormone (Part 2)