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Agenda. Bell ringer Review the Crusades The Sui . Review. What were the causes of the Crusades? What were the impacts of the Crusades on western Europe?. Unit 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions ( 600 C.E . – 1450 C.E. ). Essential learning: inner and east asia (600-1200).

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agenda
Agenda
  • Bell ringer
  • Review the Crusades
  • The Sui
review
Review
  • What were the causes of the Crusades?
  • What were the impacts of the Crusades on western Europe?
objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the development of China after the fall of the Han dynasty.
  • Identify accomplishments of the Sui dynasty.
  • Identify accomplishments of the Tang dynasty.
  • Describe the fall of the Tang dynasty.
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • How did China develop after the fall of the Han dynasty?
  • What are some accomplishments of the Sui dynasty?
  • What are some accomplishments of the Tang dynasty?
  • How did political problems and rebellions lead to the fall of the Tang dynasty?
target sui and tang empires 581 755
Target: Sui and Tang Empires (581-755)
  • Several centuries of fragmentation after fall of Han.
  • Reunified under Sui dynasty (581-615).
    • New capital Chang’an.
    • Heartland in northern China, settlements along Yangzi.
    • Grand Canal, irrigation systems, improved Great Wall.
    • Bureaucracy and resources for public works and military ambition = burdens.
slide9

Tang (Li) Dynasty (618)

    • Li Shimin (r. 626-649) extended power westward into Inner Asia.
    • Used many Sui governing practices, but avoided overcentralization.
    • Descended from Turkic elites that built small states in northern China after the Han.
      • Appreciated pastoral, nomadic culture and Chinese traditions.
slide10

Buddhism

    • Used in politics.
    • Kings and emperors – turn humankind into a harmonious Buddhist society.
    • Mahayana (“Great Vehicle”) Buddhism predominated.
      • Encouraged translating Buddhist scripture into local languages.
      • Adaptability invigorated travel, language learning, cultural exchange.
      • Monastic leaders prayed for early Tang princes in exchange for tax exemptions, land privileges, and gifts.
slide11

As the Tang Empire expanded west, contacts with Central Asia and India increased, as did Buddhist influence

    • Chang’anbecame center of continent wide system of communication
    • Regional cultures and identities remained strong.
    • Cosmopolitan empire
slide12

Well-maintained roads and water transport connected Chang’an to coastal towns of south China.

    • Grand Canal was key component.
    • Center of the tributary system – independent countries acknowledged supremacy of the Chinese emperor.
slide13

Upheavals and Repression (750-879)

    • Conflict with Tibetans and Turkic Uighurs.
      • Result – backlash against foreigners, which to Confucians included Buddhists.
        • Undermined idea of family as model for state, encouraged women in politics.
        • Cut ties with the world
          • Ex. tax exempt.
  • Fall of the Tang (879-907)
    • An Lushan and other rebellions
essential questions1
Essential Questions
  • How did China develop after the fall of the Han dynasty?
  • What are some accomplishments of the Sui dynasty?
  • What are some accomplishments of the Tang dynasty?
  • How did political problems and rebellions lead to the fall of the Tang dynasty?
review1
Review
  • How did China develop after the fall of the Han dynasty?
  • What are some accomplishments of the Sui dynasty?
  • What are some accomplishments of the Tang dynasty?
  • How did political problems and rebellions lead to the fall of the Tang dynasty?
objectives1
Objectives
  • Describe how the Liao and Jin Empires challenged Song China.
  • Identify accomplishments of the Song Empire.
  • Evaluate the role of women in the Song Empire.
essential questions2
Essential Questions
  • How did the Liao and Jin Empires challenge Song China?
  • What were some accomplishments of the Song Empire?
  • What was the role of women in the Song Empire?
target the emergence of east asia to 1200
Target: The Emergence of East Asia (to 1200)
  • Three new states after the fall of the Tang.
    • Liao Empire of the Khitan people – pastoral nomads related to Mongols.
      • Mayahana Buddhism
    • Minyakpeople – cousins of the Tibetans established Tanggut.
      • Tibetan Buddhism
    • Song Empire (960) in central China.
      • Confucianism
      • Advanced seafaring and sailing technologies.
slide25

The Liao and Jin Challenge (916-1125)

    • Liao Empire of the Khitan people
      • Horse and cattle breeders, related to Mongols.
      • Military strength.
      • Encouraged people to keep their culture.
      • Song emperor paid cash and silk annually.
    • Jin
      • Allied with Song, destroyed Liao Empire.
      • Grew rice, millet, and wheat. Hunted, fished, tended livestock.
      • Khitanmilitary strategies and political organization.
      • Campaigned against the Song in 1127.
slide27

Southern Song (1127-1279)

    • Payments to Jin stopped more warfare.
    • South of the Yellow River, capital at Hangzhou.
    • Closer to industrial revolution than any other premodern state.
    • Advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, mathematics from Tang times.
      • Adapted to meet military, agricultural, and administrative needs.
    • Fractions describe phases of the moon.
slide29

Precise calendar.

  • Refined the compass, now suitable for seafaring (1090).
  • Junk – large flatbottom sailing ship.
  • Fought for control of mines in north China – needed iron and steel for weapons.
  • Gunpowder to counter cavalry assaults.
slide30

Economy and Society in Song China

    • Civil pursuits were important
      • Private academies for official examinations
      • Neo-Confucianism – basis for Song rule
        • Moral and social responsibility.
        • Sage was important.
    • Popular Buddhist sects persisted.
    • Civil service examinations continued. Recruited talent, but wealthy had advantage.
slide31

Early form of moveable type made printing cheaper.

    • Exam prep books before 1000 = more members of lower class in bureaucracy
    • Landlords learned expert planting and irrigation techniques.
  • Population above 100 million during the 1100s.
    • Health and overcrowding.
slide32

Credit – “flying money”based on acceptance that paper could be redeemed for coinage.

  • Government-issued paper money caused inflation
  • Tax farming as revenue for maintenance of infrastructure.
    • Selling rights to tax collection to individuals.
    • Heavy burden on the common people.
  • Rapid economic growth undermined government regulation.
    • Merchants, artisans, gentry, and officials could make fortunes.
    • Traditional social hierarchy weakened.
slide33

Women experienced subordination, legal disenfranchisement, and social restriction.

    • Wives of merchants managed homes and businesses.
    • Property passed to husband. Could not remarry.
    • Subordination compatible with Confucianism.
    • Literate lower-class women aspired to improve status.
    • Footbinding (Tang then Song) as status symbol.
      • Working women and those indigenous of the south did not practice – more mobility and economic independence.
essential questions3
Essential Questions
  • How did the Liao and Jin Empires challenge Song China?
  • What were some accomplishments of the Song Empire?
  • What was the role of women in the Song Empire?
agenda2
Agenda
  • Bell ringer
  • Primary source analysis
  • Review emergence of East Asia
  • New kingdoms in East Asia and Southeast Asia
  • Closure
review2
Review
  • How did the Liao and Jin Empires challenge Song China?
  • What were some accomplishments of the Song Empire?
  • What was the role of women in the Song Empire?
objectives2
Objectives
  • Describe how Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adapted Chinese cultural and political models.
  • Identify the principal sources of wealth in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
  • Describe foreign influence on Srivijaya.
essential questions4
Essential Questions
  • How did Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adapt Chinese cultural and political models?
  • What were the principal sources of wealth in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam?
  • Where did foreign influence on Srivijaya come from and what were those influences?
target new kingdoms in asia and southeast asia
Target: New Kingdoms in Asia and Southeast Asia
  • Chinese influences
    • Korea, Japan, and Vietnam had first centralized power under ruling houses in the early Tang.
      • State ideologies resembled early Tang.
      • Government offices did not depend on exams, went to nobles.
      • Landowners faced no challenges from merchant class or urban elite.
      • Learned men prized literacy in classical Chinese and knowledge of Confucian texts.
      • Ruling and landholding elites south to instill Confucian ideals of hierarchy and harmony among the general population.
slide46

Korea

    • QinEmpire established its first colony in the Korean peninsula in the third century BCE.
    • Chinese bureaucrats began documenting Korean history and customs.
    • Horse breeding, strong hereditary elites, shamanism(belief in ability of certain people to contact ancestors and invisible spirit world).
    • Quickly absorbed Confucianism and Buddhism.
slide47

Geography

    • Mountainsin the east and north.
    • Heavily foresteduntil modern times.
    • Less than 20% of the land can be cultivated and lies mostly to the south (warm climate, monsoonrains).
    • Spread of languagespromoted by population movements to Manchuria, Mongolia, Siberia, and Japan.
slide48

Sixth century – landholding families made inherited status permanent in Silla.

    • Silla controlled much of the Korean peninsula.
  • Koryoruling house in power from 900s-1200s.
    • Supported Buddhism.
  • Oldest surviving woodblock printin Chinese characters comes from Korea in the middle 700s.
    • Experimented with movable type.
slide51

Japan

    • Geography
      • Four main islands, many smaller ones.
      • More mountainousand heavily forested than Korea in early times. 11% of land could be cultivated.
      • Mild winters and monsoonrains supported early population center on the coastlands of the Inland Sea.
      • First rulers to extend power broadly were based in Yamato River Basin.
      • Ring of Fire
slide52

Yamato Regime

    • Method of unification remains a question, but horse-riding warriors from Korea may have played central role.
    • Legal code, official variety of Confucianism, official reverence for Buddhismblended with local recognition of indigenous and immigrant chieftains as territorial administrators.
    • Within a century, centralized government with complex system of law existed.
slide53

Women from the aristocracy became royal consorts and linked their kinsmen with the royal court.

  • Used Chinese building techniques, surpassed Chinese in Buddhist studies during 8th century.
  • Cities built without walls(no constant warfare), Mandate of Heaven played no role in government.
    • The tenno(emperor) belonged to a family believed to have ruled Japan since the beginning of time.
    • Prime ministers and leaders of native religion had real control.
    • Zenith of Nara by 750.
slide54

794 – central government moved to Kyoto, usually called Heian.

    • Fujiwaraclan had much power, supported Confucianism.
      • Warriorshad local government, policing, and tax responsibilities.
      • Did not encourage education for women, noblewomen lived in isolation (studied culture and Buddhism).
  • KamakuraShogunate gained power in eastern Honshu during warfare with rival clans.
    • Military values increasingly important from 1156-1185.
    • Nobles and emperor hurried to accommodate new warlords.
    • New warrior class – samurai.
slide58

Vietnam

    • Coastal regions east of the mountainous spine of mainland Southeast Asia.
    • Economic and political life centered on the fertile RedRiverin the north and the Mekongin the south.
    • Rice-basedagriculture well suited for integration with southern China.
    • Wet climate, hilly terrain demanded expertise in irrigation.
    • Adopted Confucianbureaucratic training, Mahayana Buddhism.
    • Called Annamby the Chinese, assumed name Dai Vietin 936, good relations with Song China.
slide59

Champa, in south Vietnam, rivaled Dai Viet state.

    • Strongly influenced by India and Malay Peninsulawith maritime networks of trade and communication.
    • Fought with Dai Viet during Tang period, but both kingdoms cooperated with Song.
    • Champa rice brought to Song court as gift.
  • Confucianvalues.
  • Did not adopt footbinding.
  • In Korea, women played role in property.
  • Annamese women had higher status than women in China, participated in wet-rice cultivation.
slide60

Srivijaya

    • South of the zone of Confucian influence, all-sea route between east and west had developed by the 6th century.
    • Merchants from south India and Sri Lanka sailed through Strait of Malacca and into South China Sea.
    • Srivijaya, Sanskritfor “Great Conquest,” dominated this new route by 683.
    • Assumed control of the international trade route by bringing four distinct ecological zonesunder its control.
slide61

First zone – agricultural plainalong Musi River in Sumatra was core area.

    • King and clerks, judge, and tax collectors controlled this zone directly from Palembang, the capital.
  • Second zone – upland regionsof Sumatra’s interior, control less direct.
    • Local rulers bound to center by oaths of loyalty, elaborate court ceremonies, and sharing of profits from trade.
  • Third zone – river portsthat had been Srivijaya’s main rivals. Srivijaya allied with neighboring sea nomads, pirates who served as Srivjayan navy in return for steady income to control these.
  • Fourth zone – fertile “rice bowl” on central plain of the nearby island of Java.
    • Volcanic soilallows it to house and feed the majority of the present-day Indonesian population.
slide62

Srivijayan king presented himself as a bodhisattva.

    • Was believed to have magical powers.
    • Built and patronized Buddhist monasteries and schools.
  • Encouraged Sanskritlearning.
  • After decline in 11th century, TheravadaBuddhism prevailed.
essential questions5
Essential Questions
  • How did Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adapt Chinese cultural and political models?
  • What were the principal sources of wealth in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam?
  • Where did foreign influence on Srivijaya come from and what were those influences?