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Diastrophism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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(DY-AS-TRUH-FIZ’M). Diastrophism. DIASTROPHISM. Refers to the series of processes by which the major features of the earth’s crust were formed and changed due to relative changes in the position and in the formation of rock, which maybe sudden, causing earthquakes .

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diastrophism
DIASTROPHISM
  • Refers to the series of processes by which the major features of the earth’s crust were formed and changed due to relative changes in the position and in the formation of rock, which maybe sudden, causing earthquakes.
3 classification of earth s movement
3 classification of earth’s movement
  • Uplift- is either local or wide spread of the crust.
  • Subsidence- occurs when the earth’s crust sinks.
  • Thrust- is a horizontal motion of the crust.
3 classification of earth s movement1
3 classification of earth’s movement
  • Uplift- is either local or wide spread of the crust.

Upward

Movement

uplift
UPLIFT

Island in Pacific

Scandinavian in Sweden

3 classification of earth s movement2
3 classification of earth’s movement

2. Subsidence- occurs when the earth’s crust sinks.

Downward

Movement

subsidence
Subsidence

Island in Pacific

Drowned

Valley

3 classification of earth s movement3
3 classification of earth’s movement

3. Thrust- is a horizontal motion of the crust.

thrust
THRUST

Movement of rock in San Francisco

effects of diastrophism1
Effects of diastrophism

1. Stress and strain

2. Folding

3. Faulting

effects of diastrophism2
Effects of diastrophism
  • Stress and Strain

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRESS AND STRAIN

  • Stress- is a force that tends to compress, pull apart, or distort a rock.
  • Strain- is the adjustment to stress which could result into a change in volume or shape or could even lead to breaking.
3 types of stress
3 types of STRESS
  • Compressive stress- result from the movement of two plates pressing on a stationary plate.
  • Tensional stress- effect of one plate moving away from a fixed plate.
  • Shear stress- results from the sliding motion of two plates which pass one another or by one plate sliding a fixed plate.
3 types of stress1
3 types of STRESS
  • Compressive stress- result from the movement of two plates pressing on a stationary plate.
3 types of stress2
3 types of STRESS
  • Tensional stress- effect of one plate moving away from a fixed plate.
3 types of stress3
3 types of STRESS
  • Shear stress- results from the sliding motion of two plates which pass one another or by one plate sliding a fixed plate.
3 types of strain
3 types of Strain
  • Elastic strain- flexibility of rock units are displayed by going back to their original shape after they are freed from stress.
  • Plastic strain- rock units are deformed either by molding or bending after the stress was released.
  • Fracture strain- rock units break or crack.
effects of diastrophism3
Effects of Diastrophism

2. Folding- curving of layered bedrocks where there is an application of stress.

  • FOLDS- are warps in layered bedrocks.

There are 5 types of folds:

1. Dome

2. Basin

3. Anticline

4. Syncline

5.Monocline

types of folds
TYPES OF FOLDS
  • Dome- vertical upward stress with big ascending bulge
  • Basin- downward bulging fold
  • Anticline- arch shaped fold
  • Syncline- trough shaped fold
  • Monocline- horizontal beds are modified by step warps
types of folds2
TYPES OF FOLDS
  • Dome- vertical upward stress with big ascending bulge
types of folds3
TYPES OF FOLDS
  • Basin- downward bulging fold
types of folds4
TYPES OF FOLDS
  • Anticline- arch shaped fold
types of folds5
TYPES OF FOLDS
  • Syncline- trough shaped fold
types of folds6
TYPES OF FOLDS
  • Monocline- horizontal beds are modified by step warps
effects of diastrophism4
EFFECTS of DIASTROPHISM

3. Faulting- results when there is a fracture in the continuity of a rock formation.

  • FAULT MOVEMENT- direction of slippage

There are 3 types of fault movement:

  • Dip Slip fold
  • Strike slip fold
  • Oblique slip fold
types of fault movement
TYPES OF FAULT MOVEMENT
  • Dip-slip fold- movement is parallel to the fault surface.
    • Normal Fault
    • Reverse Fault
  • Strike-slip fold- indicates the horizontal motion parallel to the strike of the fault surface.
  • Oblique-slip- has both strike slip and dip slip components
types of fault movement1
TYPES OF FAULT MOVEMENT
  • Dip-slip fold- movement is parallel to the fault surface.
    • Normal Fault
    • Reverse Fault
types of fault movement2
TYPES OF FAULT MOVEMENT
  • Strike-slip fold- indicates the horizontal motion parallel to the strike of the fault surface.
types of fault movement3
TYPES OF FAULT MOVEMENT
  • Oblique-slip- has both strike slip and dip slip components