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Sexual Offenders: What you need to know, and why. Red River Children's Advocacy Conference Fargo, North Dakota May 10, 2012 Stacey Benson, Psy.D., L.P. An Overview of the Day. 1. Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior 2. Types of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior

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sexual offenders what you need to know and why

Sexual Offenders: What you need to know, and why

Red River

Children's Advocacy Conference

Fargo, North Dakota

May 10, 2012

Stacey Benson, Psy.D., L.P.

an overview of the day
An Overview of the Day
  • 1. Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • 2. Types of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • 3. Assessment of Legal Compulsive Sexual Behavior
  • 4. Treatment of Legal Compulsive Sexual Behavior
  • 5. Prevalence of Sexual Crimes
  • 6. Types of Sexual Crimes
    • Hands On
    • Hands Off
  • 7. Types of Sexual Offenders
    • Adolescent
    • Adult
  • 8. Assessment of Sexual Offenders
    • Juveniles
    • Adults
  • 9. Treatment of Sexual Offenders
    • Juveniles
    • Adults
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • According to the Internet Filter Review site, 40 million Americans visit Internet porn sites at least once a month (Maltz, 2008).
  • Currently, over 60 percent of all visits on the Internet involve a sexual purpose (Schneider and Weiss, 2010).
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior4
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • A record breaking 25% of employees in the United States are accessing porn at work, according to a 2008 Nielsen Online survey (Maltz, 2008).
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior5
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • There are 100,000 Web sites dedicated to selling sex in some way-not including chat rooms, emails, or other forms of sexual contact on the web (Cybersex Unhooked, 2007).
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior6
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • In the United States, twenty million “adult” magazines are sold each month.
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior7
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • The numbers of paid subscribers for selected pornography magazines are (The National Research Bureau, 1992):
    • Penthouse – 4,600,000
    • Playboy – 3,600,000
    • Hustler – 1,200,000
    • Gallery – 500,000
    • Oui – 395,000
    • Chic – 90,000
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior8
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • Nearly all college men and women have looked at an explicit magazine, such as Playboy or Playgirl by the time they leave high school and 85%-90% have done so in junior high school.
  • The average college male spends about six hours a month looking at sexually explicit material and the average college female about two hours.
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior9
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • December 2005: there were 63.5 million unique visitors to adult websites.
  • As of 2006: 87% of university students polled engaged in virtual sex.
  • Mobile porn revenue is over $1 billion.
  • At the end of 2004, there were
    • 420 million pages of pornography.
  • Adults admitting to internet compulsion=10%.
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior10
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • The vast majority of all the respondents reported exposure to hard-core, X-rated, sexually explicit material .
  • Furthermore, “a larger proportion of high school students had seen X-rated films than any other age group, including adults”: 84%, with the average age of first exposure being 16 years, 11 months .
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior11
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • 33% of the boys versus only 2% of the girls reported watching pornography once a month or more often.
  • As well, 29% of the boys versus 1% of the girls reported that pornography was the source that had provided them with the most useful information about sex (i.e., more than parents, school, friends, etc.).
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior12
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • In an anonymous survey of 247 Canadian junior high school students whose average age was 14 years, James Check and Kristin Maxwell (1992) report that 87% of the boys and 61% of the girls said they had viewed video-pornography.
  • The average age at first exposure was just under 12 years.
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior13
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • 34% of kids reported exposure to unwanted sexual material while surfing the internet.
  • 1 in 7 report unwanted solicitation as compared to 1 in 5 in 2000.
  • 92% of teens downloaded music online.
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior14
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • Pornography has become a substantial part of the United States’ economy .
  • No matter it’s means of access,

pornography produced annual

revenues in excess of $13 billion

dollars in the United States.

  • Worldwide it produced $100 billion.
pornography s effects
Pornography’s Effects
  • Evidence shows that as many as one in three rapists and child molesters use pornography to become sexually aroused immediately proceeding and during the commission of their crimes (Marshall, 1989).
  • And other studies report that 56% of rapists and 42% of child molesters reported that pornography was somehow implicated in their offense (Able, 1985).
pornography s effects17
Pornography’s Effects
  • Persons reporting exposure to pornography are 28% more likely to engage in sexually deviant behavior (such as exhibitionism or voyeurism) than the general population.
  • Risk of engaging in sexual perpetration - that is, sexually hostile or violent behavior - was found to increase by between 21 and 30% for persons exposed to pornography.
prevalence of legal sexual compulsive behavior18
Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • It is estimated that about 15 % of people in the United States using the internet for sexual purposes DO have problems with their cybersex activities (Cohn, 2010).
  • Approximately 6% or about 9 million of these users could be classified as “sexually addicted”, and another 10% or about 15 million are using cybersex in ways that are risky and showing signs of compulsivity.
so does everyone become addicted
So, does everyone become “addicted”?
  • No 
  • Research shows that the majority of people who use the internet for sexual purposes are recreational users  
  • “Most people can use the internet (including for sexual purposes) without being obsessed and compulsive, managing their use with little difficulty while continuing to maintain a reasonably balanced life and without negative consequences” (Cohn, 2010). 
  • Think of these people like your “social drinkers”
the progression
The Progression
  • When I talk to college students, I use the analogy of drinking to help describe the problem.
  • Some people can be social drinkers,

some people can not.

having said that
Having Said That……
  • Using pornography
  • Having affairs
  • Sexual texting
  • Posting on Craig's List
  • Etc
  • These are Choices!!! Do not let clients or their partners excuse their behavior by calling it an “addiction”.
  • If they chose to conceptualize the behavior from an addiction model, that can be helpful for many clients, but watch for “Its not my fault, I’m addicted” statements.
  • It is different from alcohol and drug addiction. It shares features, but it is different
the power of cybersex the cyber hex
The Power of Cybersex: The “Cyber-Hex”
  • The internet has six attributes- “the Cyber-Hex”- that make it unique among all other media (Delmonico et al, 2007)
    • These attributes make it extremely alluring for someone seeking sexual arousal and fulfillment
  • The 6 attributes:
    • Intoxicating
    • Isolating
    • Integral
    • Inexpensive
    • Imposing
    • Interactive (Delmonico et al, 2007)
assessment of legal compulsive sexual behavior26
Assessment of Legal Compulsive Sexual Behavior
  • Extensive Questionnaire
  • Detailed Clinical Interview
  • Assessment instruments such as the ISST-R and others
  • Collateral information from the spouses
questions to ask clients
Questions To Ask Clients
  • Questions that should be asked to help increase client’s awareness in order for them to evaluate their involvement with porn
    • Is porn increasing or decreasing your self esteem and integrity?
    • Is it upsetting or alienating your intimate partner (or harming your future chances of being in a healthy relationship)?
    • Have you become preoccupied, out of control, dependent on, or compulsively engaging with porn?
    • How is porn shaping your sexual thoughts, desires, and behaviors?
    • What negative consequences could occur if you continue to use porn?

(Maltz, 2008)

questions to ask clients28
Questions To Ask Clients
  • How many hours a week are you on the internet in sex related pursuits?
  • Have you accessed porn at work?
  • Have you made attempts to control it in the past? Were they successful?
  • Do you belong to any pay sites? How much per month do you spend?
  • Have you ever met someone in person you met on line?
  • Do you have a webcam?
  • Have you engaged in cyber sex?
questions to ask clients29
Questions To Ask Clients
  • Have other obligations (marital, financial, parenting, spiritual, community, job) taken a back seat to your porn use?
  • Have you found yourself accessing more and more “unusual” sites?
  • Do you get anxious or irritable if something interrupts your ability to go on line?
  • Has it impacted your real life sexual life with your real life partner?
  • What is the longest you have been on in one sitting?
  • What is the latest you have been up on line?
questions to ask clients30
Questions To Ask Clients
  • Do you use pornography as a reward after a good day? Or a pick me up after a bad day?
  • Have you engaged in riskier behavior now than in the past?
  • Do you hide your Internet Porn use from others?
  • Do you think you have a problem?
  • Do you want to stop?
  • If your wife/partner did not find out and insist you get into treatment, would you be here?
  • If she leaves you, will you terminate treatment?
types of online users
Types of Online Users
  • Recreational


  • Sexually



  • At-Risk


10 criteria for problematic online sexual behavior
10 Criteria for Problematic Online Sexual Behavior
  • 1. Preoccupation with sex on the internet
  • 2. Engaging in sex on the internet more often or for longer periods of time than intended
  • 3. Repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back on, or stop engaging in sex on the internet
  • 4. Restlessness or irritability when attempting to limit or stop engaging in sex on the Internet
  • 5. Using sex on the Internet as a way of escaping from problems or relieving feelings such as helplessness, guilt, anxiety, or depression
10 criteria for problematic online sexual behavior33
(Delmonico et al, 2007)10 Criteria for Problematic Online Sexual Behavior
  • 6. Returning to sex on the Internet day after day in search of a more intense or higher-risk sexual experience
  • 7. Lying to family members, therapists, or others to conceal involvement with sex on the Internet
  • 8. Committing illegal sexual acts online (for example, sending or downloading child pornography or soliciting illegal sex acts online)
  • 9. Jeopardizing or losing a significant relationship, job or educational or career opportunity because of online sexual behavior
  • 10. Incurring significant financial consequences
general recommendations
General Recommendations
  • You should ask questions about sexual compulsive behavior of all new clients, regardless of their presenting problem. Its not unusual for clients to present with issues of “anger” or “relationship issues” only to tell you 45 minutes in that they have a problem with internet pornography.
  • Try to avoid reacting with shock or disgust as they relay to you the extent of their sexual experiences. They have entrusted you with their secret shame, treat it with the respect it deserves.
  • Do a thorough assessment of their compulsive sexual behavior.
  • Refer when needed.
treatment of legal sexually compulsive behavior36
Treatment ofLegal Sexually Compulsive Behavior
  • Stage 1: Precontemplation
  • Stage 2: Contemplation
  • Stage 3: Preparation
  • Stage 4: Taking Action
  • Stage 5: Maintenance
  • Stage 6: Relapse

(Delmonico et al, 2007)

initial suggestions for clients
Initial Suggestions for Clients:
  • Find a professional with experience in this area.
  • Calculate how much your Compulsive Sexual Behavior has cost you.
  • Change passwords to something that will be motivating.
  • Net Nanny.
  • Reestablish contact with positive support people.
  • Involve family and friends in your recovery.
  • Reestablish contact with your faith community.
  • Find a 12 step support group.
  • Encourage marital therapy or supportive therapy for the partner
  • Make a commitment to change-once an “addict” you can not go back to being a “social drinker.” The person must stop all compulsive sexual behavior.
the next step
The Next Step
  • Clients are encouraged to keep an Internet Log, and note the antecedents to their behavior.
    • What were they doing?
    • What were they feeling?
    • What were they thinking?
    • What time of day is it?
  • Does any kind of predictable pattern emerge?
  • Are there any environmental manipulations we can do based on these patterns?
  • Can we identify risky:
    • Feelings
    • Thoughts
    • Behaviors
    • Times of day
  • Hungry
  • Horny
  • Angry
  • Lonely
  • Tired
recovery strategies
Recovery Strategies
  • Recognize what you’re missing.
    • Make a full assessment of the things you’ve cut down on, or cut out of your life because of your addiction to the Internet.
  • Assess your online time.
  • Use time management techniques.
  • Find support in the real world.
  • Recognize your addictive triggers.
  • Carry positive reminder cards.
  • Take concrete steps to address problems.
  • Listen to the voices of denial.
  • Confront your loneliness.

(Young, 1998)

treatment for legal sexual compulsive behavior
Treatment for Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • Talk about self control
  • High Risk Situations
  • Self control
  • Seemingly Unimportant Decisions
  • Problem of Immediate Gratification
  • Abstinence Violation Effect (might as well keep doing it)
  • Thinking Errors/Cognitive Distortions
treatment for legal sexual compulsive behavior44
Treatment for Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior
  • Cognitive and Behavioral Interventions (CI’s and BI’s)
  • Identify the true costs
  • Understand the Cycle
  • Make a commitment
prevalence of sexual offending
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • NCMAC reports a significant and steady increase in child pornography for the 7th year in a row as of 2005
  • It is estimated that there are 20,000 new child porn images online each week
  • Child pornography has become a $3 billion annual industry
    • They are getting younger, the abuse is more serious in nature and many of the venues appear to be domestic in nature
prevalence of sexual offending47
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • There were an estimated 88,097 forcible rapes reported to law enforcement in 2009 (AARDVARC)
  • The rate of forcible rapes in 2009 was estimated at 56.6 per 100,000 female inhabitants, a 3.4 percent decrease when compared with the 2008 estimated rate of 58.6. (AARDVARC)
  • Rapes by force comprised 93.0 percent of reported rape offenses in 2009, and attempts or assaults to commit rape accounted for 7.0 percent of reported rapes. (AARDVARC)
  • In 2006 ND had 193 forcible rape cases, ranking us 48th in the Nation (Bureau of Justice Statistics).
  • In 2002 ND had 222 forcible rape cases. (Attorney General Crime Report)
prevalence of sexual offending48
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • 1 in 4 girls is sexually abused before the age of 14.
  • Source: Hopper, J. (1998). Child Sexual Abuse: Statistics, Research, Resources. Boston, MA Boston University School of Medicine.
  • 1 in 6 boys is sexually abused before the age of 16.
  • Source: Hopper, J. (1998). Child Sexual Abuse: Statistics, Research, Resources. Boston, MA Boston University School of Medicine.
  • More than 90% of all sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator. Almost 50% of the offenders are household members and 38% are already acquaintances of the victims.
  • Source: US Department of Justice. (1997) and Finkelhor and Ormond. (2001).
prevalence of sexual offending49
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • 21.6% of women who reported being raped during their lifetime were under age 12 at the time of their first rape. 32.4% of these women were 12-17 years of age. Therefore, over half of all female rape victim/survivors surveyed in this study were under the age of 18 at the time of their first rape.
  • Source: Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, (NCJRS) 2000 (
prevalence of sexual offending50
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • Persons under 18 years of age account for 67% of all sexual assault victimizations reported to law enforcement agencies. Children under 12 years old account for 34% of those cases and children under six years account for 14% of those cases
  • Source: Snyder, Howard. “Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics.” Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, 2000.
prevalence of sexual offending51
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • According to the U.S. Department of Justice, victims of rape and sexual assault report that in nearly 3 out of 4 incidents, the offender was not a stranger. Based on police-recorded incident data, in 90% of the rapes of children younger than 12, the child knew the offender.
  • Source: Greenfield, et al, 1997. Sex Offenses and Offenders: An Analysis of Data Rape and Sexual Assault. United States Department of Justice.
prevalence of sexual offending52
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • 2/3rds of babies born to teenage mothers were fathered by adult men, not same age male peers.
  • Source: The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1996 Based on a California Study
prevalence of sexual offending53
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • Women reported that offenses against them were committed by:
    • Strangers: 28%
    • Intimates/Partners: 10%
    • Relatives: 2%
    • Friends/acquaintences: 57%
    • Unknown: 3%
  • Men reported that offenses against them were committed by:
    • Strangers: 48%
    • Friends/acquaintences: 52%
    • Source: AARDVARC
prevalence of sexual offending54
Prevalence of Sexual Offending
  • The statistical victim of sexual assault is white, female, and under 18 years of age.
  • The typical offender is white, male, and over 18 years of age.
  • 1.8 rapes or sexual assaults are REPORTED by women for each 1,000 over age 12. (That's about 248,000 per year.)
  • .3 rapes or sexual assaults are REPORTED by men for each 1,000 over age 12. (That's about 32,000 per year.)
  • Women reported that offenses against them were committed by:
  • Source AARDVARC
types of sexual crimes56
Types of Sexual Crimes

Hands On

Hands Off

  • Sexual assault
  • Rape
  • Molestation
  • Forcible sodomy
  • Sexual touching
  • Exhibitionism
  • Possessing illicit pornography
  • Obscene telephone calls
  • Voyeurism
  • Sexual harassment
sexual paraphilias
Sexual Paraphilias
  • Exhibitionism
  • Obscene Phone Calls
  • Voyeurism
  • Frotteurism
  • Fetishism
  • Transvestism
  • Sexual Masochism
  • Hypoxyphilia
  • Sexual Sadism
  • Necrophilia
  • Zoophilia
  • Coprophilia and Urophilia
  • Pedophilia
  • Mysophilia
online solicitation offenders
Online Solicitation Offenders
  • According to a 2011 study by Seto, Babchishin, Wood, and Flynn, men convicted of internet solicitation offenses had some significant differences from child pornography offenders .
    • Lower capacity for relationship stability
    • Lower sex drive/preoccupation
    • Less deviant sexual preferences
  • They were also different from lower risk contact sexual offenders.
    • Lower capacity for relationship stability
    • Higher sex drive/preoccupation
    • Greater self-reported use of child pornography
who are sex offenders
Who are sex offenders?

What comes to mind when you think about sex offenders?

in fact
In Fact. . . .

Juveniles comprise 25.8% of all sexual offenses

Also. . . .

Of all sex offenses committed against juvenile victims, 35.6% are committed by juveniles.

age and sex of juveniles who offend
Age and Sex of Juveniles Who Offend
  • The rate of sexual offense behavior rises sharply at the age of 12, and plateaus after age 14.
  • The vast majority of juveniles who sexually offend are male (93%).
    • Females who offend tend to be younger, have more victims, offend alongside peers more, have more male victims, and have more victims that are family members.
  • According to the U.S. Department of Justice, National Report Series from December 2011
  • “Contrary to the popular perception that juvenile crime is on the rise, the data reported in this bulletin tell a different story. As detailed in these pages, juvenile arrests for violent offenses declined 10% between 2008 and 2009, and overall juvenile arrests fell 9% during that same period. Between 1994—when the Violent Crime Index arrest rates for juveniles hit a historic high—and 2009, the rate fell nearly 50% to its lowest level since at least 1980. Arrest rates for nearly every offense category for both male and female and white and minority youth were down in 2009.”
additional data
Additional Data
  • The juvenile arrest rate for forcible rape in 2009 was half its 1991 peak.
  • The 2009 rape arrest rate was at its lowest level in three decades.
  • Juveniles accounted for 15% of all forcible rape arrests reported in 2009.
    • More than two-thirds (68%) of these juvenile arrests involved youth ages 15–17.
    • Not surprisingly, males accounted for the overwhelming majority (98%) of juvenile arrests for forcible rape.
additional data66
Additional Data
  • Also in 2009, there were 13,400 juvenile arrests for sex offenses other than those related to prostitution.
  • 48% were under age 15.
  • This is down 28% from 2000, and 10% below 2008.

Not all children or adolescents who sexually harm have been sexually abused. Many acted out after viewing sexual content on the Internet.

    • Especially the younger children. They may act out the confusing images they have seen on the computer as a way to discharge their anxiety.
      • Below 12-more of an adrenaline rush
      • Beyond 12-more of a hormonal rush
normal sexual behavior in younger children
Normal Sexual Behavior in younger children
  • Sexual play with children they know (playing doctor)
  • Interested in sexual content in movies, tv, internet
  • Interested in touching own genitalia
  • Curious about sex
  • Wants privacy when dressing
  • Easily redirected if told “no”
  • Intermittent sexual play that includes consent, and with youth of similar age and size, whom they know well
less common sexual behavior
Less Common sexual behavior
  • Sexual contact beyond touching or looking (penetration, oral)
  • Talks openly about sexual matters
  • Asks for sexual contact
  • Engages in sexual contact with someone they do not know well
  • Chosen over other activities
  • Is aggressive, forced or coerced
  • Occurs with children smaller, younger or otherwise more vulnerable
  • Does not respond to being told no
kids are different
Kids Are Different!
  • It is critical to understand that juveniles are VERY different from adults with regard to sexual offense behavior!
  • The research shows that juveniles tend to offend at MUCH LOWER RATES compared to their adult counterparts, especially if treated.
    • After treatment, children with sexual behavior problems have been found to be at no greater risk for future sex offenses as other clinic children (2% to 3%).
  • This is a case for avoiding referring to a minor as a “sex offender.”
other differences
Other Differences
  • Juveniles are more likely to offend in groups than adults (24% as opposed to 14%).
  • They are more likely to have a male victim (25% versus 13%).
  • They are less likely to offend at home (69% versus 80%) and more likely to offend at school (12% versus 2%).
additional demographics
Additional Demographics
  • Juvenile’s who sexually harm are typically between the ages of 13 and 17.
  • They are generally male.
  • 30-60% exhibit learning disabilities and academic dysfunction.
  • Up to 80% have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder.
  • Many have difficulties with impulse control and judgment.
  • 20-50% have histories of physical abuse.
  • 40-80% have histories of sexual abuse.
  • 80-90% will NOT sexually reoffend in adulthood.
technology s recent role
Technology’s Recent Role
  • Most of today’s youth have access to the Internet at home, school, friends’ homes, or their cell phones. Many use text and picture messaging services via cell phones.
  • These services have made everything more convenient. . . .
including risky behavior
. . . .Including Risky Behavior
  • RegardingCOMPUTERS:
    • Between 40% and 60% of teens report they do not tell their parents what they do online.
    • Between 15% and 20% of teens admit to meeting someone offline they did not previously know.
    • 60% of adolescents report giving personal information to an acquaintance online.
    • The average age of first online pornography exposure is eleven.
computers continued
Computers, Continued
  • One of every five children report being sexually solicited on the internet.
risky behavior continued
Risky Behavior, Continued
  • Regarding PHONES:
    • Sexting is prevalent, with 40% of youth saying they have friends who carry out such a practice.
    • Among teens aged 12 to 17, 4% have sent sexually provocative images of themselves to someone else via text message, and 15% have received such a message. Rates are higher for older adolescents than this general statistic.
phones continued
Phones, Continued
  • Over half (56%) of teenagers are aware of instances where images and videos were distributed further than the intended recipient.
  • 30% of youth know people who were adversely affected by sexting.
  • Only 24% of teens would turn to a teacher if they were affected by issues related to sexting.
technology and juvenile sexual offenses
Technology and Juvenile Sexual Offenses
  • Why do all those statistics about teen computer and phone use matter to our discussion of juveniles who sexually offend?
    • Redistribution of a sexually explicit picture message is a sexual offense.
    • Adolescents with sexual offense behaviors have often engaged in the exchange of emails, text messages, and picture messages with sexual content.
    • Youth are especially prone to become victims of crimes based on technological resources.
    • Often, teen behavior online and via cell phone is less restricted than forms of “real life” behavior.
alternative views
Alternative Views
  • Not all research has yielded similar results.
  • Two studies from the University of New Hampshire Crimes against Children Research Center suggest that concerns about teen sexting may be overblown.
    • One study found the percentage of youth who send nude pictures of themselves that would qualify as child pornography is very low.
      • 2.5 percent of youth surveyed have participated in sexting in the past year, but only 1 percent involved images that potentially violate child pornography laws (naked breasts, genitals or bottoms).
    • The other found that when teen sexting images do come to police attention, few youth are being arrested or treated like sex offenders.
      • Researchers discovered that in most police-investigated sexting cases, no juvenile arrest occurred.
        • Standard cases: 18% arrested.
        • With aggravating factors: 36% arrested.
recent legislation
Recent Legislation
  • North Dakota:
    • As of April 24, 2009, it is a Class A misdemeanor for a person to knowingly surreptitiously create or possess a surreptitiously created nude/nearly nude image without written consent from everybody in the image.
    • It is a Class A misdemeanor to distribute such an image to harm or humiliate the image subject.
    • It is a Class B misdemeanor to acquire and distribute any sexually expressive image without the consent of the image subject.
  • Minnesota:
    • No new legislation pertinent to juvenile sexting is known at this time.
  • Note: Many more state laws apply to adults engaging in sexting practices.
assessment of sexual offenders83
Assessment of Sexual Offenders



  • MnSOST-R
  • Static 99R
  • SVR-20
  • PCL-R
  • Risk Matrix 2000
  • Stable 2007
  • SRA-FV
  • PPG
  • MEGA
what is a risk assessment
What is a Risk Assessment?
  • A Risk Assessment is a comprehensive evaluation to determination a particular sex offender’s likelihood to commit a subsequent sex crime, and a determination of their likelihood to benefit from treatment
predicting who will reoffend before 1996
Predicting Who Will Reoffend- before 1996

Clinical judgment


  • “The Jerk” factor

Correlated 0.10 with sexual recidivism

  • 60% of all child molesters have no comorbid pathology
1996 brought changes
1996 brought changes…
  • Civil Commitment
  • Meghan’s Law
  • Psychologists started looking for some research to back up our claims
problematic issues when assessing base rates for sexual reoffense
Problematic Issues When Assessing Base Rates for Sexual Reoffense
  • Sexual assaults are underreported.
  • Problems in defining recidivism.
  • How do you find out if the offender actually reoffended?
  • How long should they be followed?
  • Recidivism rates are different for different types of offenders.
base rates for different types of offenders
Base Rates for Different Types of Offenders
  • Intra familial offenders


(Barbaree & Marshall, 1998, Gibbens, Soothil & Way, 1995, Gorden & Bergen, 1988, Dondis, 1965, Hanson, Steffy & Gauthieir, 1993)

  • Extra familial child offenders

over 50%

(Prentky et all in press)

  • Rapists


(Prentky, Lee, Knight & Cerece in press)

predicting who will reoffend after 1996
Predicting Who Will Reoffend- After 1996
  • Predictions are now based on characteristics of sexual offenders that have been shown to predict the likelihood of a future sex crime-using actuarial instruments
the process
The Process
  • Pre-interview regarding confidentiality and the limits there of, purpose of testing, who will see it, procedure for the evaluation etc.
  • MnSOST-R
  • Static 99R
  • Stable 2007
  • SRA: FV
  • Background questionnaire
  • MMPI-2
  • MCMI-III (?)
  • Shipley
  • SAI
  • MSI
  • ABEL screen (?)
the process91
The Process
  • Review every document you can find-there is no such thing as a record that is “too old”, often old records can contain very important information that brings new light to the case, and how long such behavior has been going on.
  • Dictate background information, questionnaire information, police records and testing results and do a preliminary score of the actuarial instruments
the process92
The Process
  • Start out by explaining the process, exactly what you have been asked to do and what the limits of confidentiality are.
  • Have the offender tell you, in his/her own words what they think they are being evaluated for, and put that quote in the report.
  • Make sure they know the final report is going to the judge, not just their attorney, and that it will be reviewed by both attorneys.
  • No such thing as “off the record”
  • Get consent, written and verbal, to continue
what to look for in the testing interview
What to look for in the testing/interview:
  • Presence of a major mental illness
  • Presence of cognitive impairments
  • Presence of cognitive distortions
  • High Denial
  • Blaming the victim
  • Argumentative
  • Multiple paraphillias
  • Psychopathy
  • Axis II
  • Alfred Pleas
  • Number of victims and offended across victim types (age, gender etc)
  • No treatment
  • No support system
  • Probation failures
the process94
The Process
  • Dictate everything
  • Refine the actuarials
  • Contact Parole and Probation
  • Work on diagnostics,
  • summary
  • and recommendations
the content
The Content
  • A risk assessment should be comprehensive, and include at least some information on all of the following areas:
the content96
The Content
  • Reason for Referral
  • Administrative Procedures and Referral Time Line
  • Family History
  • Educational History
  • Vocational History
  • Military History
  • Legal History
  • Drug and Alcohol Use History
  • Treatment History
  • Sexual History
  • Previous Psychological Evaluations
  • Previous Sexual Crimes
  • Previous Risk Assessments
  • Current Sexual Crime
  • Diagnoses
  • Summary
  • Recommendations
  • Don’t help them be a better liar by pointing out inconsistencies
  • Ask good follow up, don’t just note they have or have not done something; ask how often, height of usage, age it started etc.
  • Remain non judgmental neutral (dog story…)
  • Ask open ended questions
  • Use presumptive questioning
  • Build rapport
  • Start with more neutral questions
  • Ask questions in unique ways, and at different times, helps get away from “rehearsed” answers
trouble shooting
Trouble Shooting
  • What do you do if the score low risk on one, medium risk on another, and high risk on a third??????
  • What do you do if they refuse to meet with you?
  • What do you do with female offenders?
  • Juvenile offenders?
  • Offenders from other countries?
  • First time incest offenders?
typical recommendations
Typical Recommendations:
  • Sex Offender Treatment following legal consequences
  • Polygraph / Plythysmograph / Abel screen
  • No contact with children
  • Pay for victim’s counseling (donation to rape and abuse)
  • No pornography usage
  • Unannounced home and work visits after incarceration period
j soap ii
  • Prentky and Righthand
  • 28 items, 4 subscales
  • Empirically Guided
    • Subscales are:
    • Sexual Drive/Preoccupation
    • Impulsive, antisocial behavior
    • Intervention
    • Community Stability/adjustment
j soap ii101
  • Prior Legally charged sex offenses
  • Number of sexual abuse victims
  • Degree of planning in sexual offenses
  • Caregiver consistency
  • Pervasive Anger
  • School Behavior Problems
  • Juvenile Antisocial Behavior
  • Accepting responsibility for the offense
  • Empathy
  • Cognitive distortions
  • Quality of peer relationships
  • Management of sexual urges and desire
  • Stability of current living situation
  • Stability in school
  • Evidence of support system
  • Worling and Curwen
  • Empirically Guided
  • 5 domains
    • Sexual Interests, attitudes and behavior
    • Historical sexual assaults
    • Psychosocial functioning
    • Family environment functioning
    • treatment
  • 1. Deviant Sexual Interest (children / violence or both):
  • 2. Obsessive Sexual Interests/Preoccupation with Sexual Thoughts.
  • 3. Attitude Supporting of Sexual Offending:
  • 4. Unwillingness to Alter Deviant Sexual Interests/Attitudes:
  • 5. Ever Sexually Assaulted 2 or More Victims:
  • 6. Ever Sexually Assaulted Same Victim 2 or More Times:
  • 7. Prior Adult Sanctions for Sexual Assault:
  • 8. Threats of, or use of, Excessive Violence/Weapons During Sexual Offense:
  • 9. Ever Sexually Assaulted a Child:
  • 10. Ever Sexually Assaulted a Stranger:
  • 11. Indiscriminate Choice of Victims:
  • 12. Ever Sexually Assaulted a Male Victim:
  • 13. Diverse Sexual Assault Behaviors:
  • 14. Antisocial Interpersonal Orientation:  
  • 15. Lack of Intimate Peer Relationships/Social Isolation:
  • 16. Negative Peer Associations and Influences:
  • 17. Interpersonal Aggression:
  • 18. Recent Escalation in Anger or Negative Affect:
  • 19. Poor Self Regulation of Affect and Behavior (Impulsivity):
  • 20. High Stress Family Environment:
  • 21. Problematic Parent/Offender Relationship/Parental Rejection:
  • 22. Parents Not Supporting Sex Offense Specific Assessment/Treatment:
  • 23. Environment Supporting Opportunities to Sexually Reoffend:
  • 24. No Development or Practice of Realistic Prevention Plans/Strategies:
  • 25. Incomplete Sex Offense Specific Treatment:
obrian and bera
OBrian and Bera
  • Naïve Experimenters
  • Under Socialized Child Exploiters
  • Sexual Aggressive
  • Sexual Compulsive
  • Disturbed Impulsive
  • Peer Group Influenced
  • Antisocial/Impulsive
  • Over Controlled Reserved
  • Unusual/Isolated
  • Confident/ Aggressive
toni cavanaugh johnson
Toni Cavanaugh Johnson
  • Group I: Natural and Healthy Sexual Play
  • Group II: Sexually Reactive Behaviors
  • Group III: Extensive Mutual Sexual Behaviors
  • Group IV: Children who Molest
will treatment help anyway
Will Treatment help anyway?

Early Conclusions

“There is no evidence that treatment effectively reduces sex offense recidivism.”

(Furby 1989)

1. Lack of control groups

2. Small N

3. Unreliable reporting methods

4. Other

will treatment help anyway110
Will treatment help anyway?
  • Later conclusions:
  • Sex offenders who completed treatment, are less likely to reoffend (Nagayama Hall 1995)
  • When current treatments are evaluated with credible designs, there is a reduction in both sexual recidivism & general recidivism (Hansen etal: 2000)
so lets send all offenders to treatment right
So, Lets send all offenders to treatment, right?
  • Wrong:
  • “If the offender starts treatment subsequently quits, is kicked out, drops out, etc., he is statistically at a higher risk to reoffend than if he never entered treatment at all.”

(Hanson and Bussierses 1996)

treatment of sexual offenders113
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Cognitive and Behavioral interventions
  • Counter conditioning methods
  • Amends
  • Denial
  • Taking Responsibility
  • Identify risk factors associated with lifestyle
  • High Risk Situations
  • Triggers
  • Thoughts/Feelings and Behaviors that lead to reoffending
  • SUDS
  • Grooming behavior
treatment of sexual offenders114
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Accepting Responsibility
    • Making a Commitment to Treatment
    • Denial
      • Denial of the facts
      • Denial of intent
      • Denial of impact
      • Denial of responsibility
      • Denial of the need for treatment
treatment of sexual offenders115
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Managing your behavior
    • Coping with Deviant arousal
      • The Sex Offense Cycle
      • Seemingly Unimportant Decisions
      • Abstinence Violation Effect (Giving )
      • Behavioral alternatives at each level of the cycle
      • Avoidance/Escape
    • Minimal Arousal Conditioning
    • Ammonia Control
    • Covert Conditioning
    • Coping with Anger
      • Anger log
      • Anger autobiography
      • Taking responsibility for your anger
      • Changing how you express anger
treatment of sexual offenders116
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Understanding Yourself
    • Childhood
      • What we learned about ourselves
    • Family Dynamics
      • What we learned about
      • Rules
      • Roles
      • boundaries
    • Sexual autobiography
treatment of sexual offenders117
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Victim Impact
    • How sexual abuse affects victims
    • Victim Empathy
    • Thinking errors about victims
    • Empathy role plays
    • Clarification letter
treatment of sexual offenders118
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Relationship and Communication Skills
    • Understanding relationships
    • Understanding your role in relationship failures
    • Basic beliefs that interfere in relationships
    • Self defeating styles of relating to others
      • Assertive
      • Aggressive
      • Passive Aggressive
    • Effective communication


    • The Characteristics of bad


treatment of sexual offenders119
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Thinking, Feeling, Behaving
    • Automatic thoughts/feelings
    • Self statements
    • Thinking feeling link
    • Distorted thinking
    • Styles of distorted thinking
      • All or Nothing
      • Rationalization
      • Minimization
      • Catastrophizing
      • Personalization
      • Overemphasizing one detail
      • Etc., etc., etc.
    • Restructuring distorted thinking
treatment of sexual offenders120
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Thinking, Feeling, Behaving
    • Emotions
    • Expressing emotions
    • Situation and Setting
    • Symptoms
    • Behavior chains
    • Building offense chains
    • The imaginary relapse scenario
treatment of sexual offenders121
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Thinking, Feeling, Behaving
    • Positive/Negative Consequences
    • Changing Poor choices
    • Problem Solving
    • Behavior chains
    • Building offense chains
    • The imaginary relapse scenario
treatment of sexual offenders122
Treatment of Sexual Offenders
  • Sexually Compulsive Behavior related to child pornography requires different treatment
    • Minimal Arousal Conditioning
    • Ammonia Aversion
    • Masturbatory Reconditioning
    • Traditional Sex Offender Treatment
treatment juveniles
Treatment: Juveniles
  • Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of sex offender treatment for juveniles.
  • Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment guidelines for this population.
treatment juveniles124
Treatment: Juveniles
  • The guidelines that exist are based on expert opinion and accepted practice.
    • National Task Force on Juvenile Sexual Abuser Treatment
    • Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (in process)
  • So what can be done for the treatment of this youth?
  • Psychoeducation
    • Healthy sexuality
    • Appropriate boundaries
    • Self-regulation
  • Autobiography
  • Fantasy work
  • Medication (sometimes)
    • SSRIs: setraline, fluoxetine, paroxetine
    • Antiandrogens/hormonal agents: medroxyprogesterone acetate
    • Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists: leuprolide acetate, goserelin acetate
treatment juveniles126
Treatment: Juveniles
  • What is consent and who can give it
  • Legal vs. illegal sexual behavior
  • Understanding anger
  • Identifying problems
  • Disclosing
    • Denial
    • Thinking Errors
    • Who I hurt
    • What I did
    • How I did it
    • How I planned it
    • Victim’s Reactions
    • Victims Feelings
    • Who is Responsible
    • Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
treatment juveniles127
Treatment: Juveniles
  • Myths of Sexual Abuse
  • Who is a victim
    • Direct
    • Indirect
    • Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
treatment juveniles128
Treatment: Juveniles
  • Why did I do it?
    • Motivation (urges)
      • Emotional Needs
      • Sexual Arousal
      • Blockage
    • Internal Barriers
    • External Barriers
    • Victim Resistance
    • My Sensitivity to Victim Resistance
    • Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
treatment goals
Treatment Goals
  • 1. Accept full responsibility for any sexually inappropriate and or criminal or harmful behaviors
  • 2. Develop a clear understanding of and sensitivity to the impact of my behavior on the people I have hurt
  • 3. Develop an understanding of the thoughts and feelings that led to my inappropriate behaviors and identity the factors that contributed to my poor choices
  • 4. Learn to develop healthy and legal relationships that don’t hurt other people
  • 5. Learn to have healthy sexual thoughts, feelings, actions and behaviors and learn to control and eliminate unhealthy sexual thoughts, feelings actions and behaviors.
  • 6. Identify high risk situations that could lead to committing sexually inappropriate behavior.
  • 7. Develop a strong network of people who will support me in making healthy choices
  • 8. Develop a healthy living plan that other people in my support system will read and sign
  • 9. Learn and demonstrate the four key treatment challenges, responsibility, honesty, sensitivity and integrity.
  • From: Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
treatment juveniles130
Treatment: Juveniles
  • Identifying Grooming and Maintenance Behaviors
  • Understanding the chain of events that lead to offending
  • Creating and Following a Relapse Prevention Plan
    • Seemingly Unimportant Decisions (SUD’s)
    • High Risk Situations (HRS’s)
  • Controlling and expressing my sexual feelings in a positive way
    • Covert Sensitization
    • Vicarious Sensitization
    • Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
treatment juveniles131
Treatment: Juveniles
  • Accountability Plans
  • Making things clear and apologizing for my behavior
    • Clarification letters
    • Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
treatment juveniles132
Treatment: Juveniles
  • S.T.O.P. plans
    • Support Through On Going Prevention
    • Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
group rules
Group Rules
  • The worth of every member is universal, intrinsic and unquestioned.
  • Start and end of time
  • Be respectful of all members
  • No electronics
  • Confidentiality
  • Excused Absences only
who might not be a good group candidate
Who might NOT be a good group candidate
  • Low iq, learning disabled, FASD
  • Major mental illness
  • Active CD issues
  • Psychopathic
  • Autistic
  • Very low risk
  • When the offense is such that group may reject them
  • When the offense is such that they may reject the group
safety plans
Safety Plans
  • Who is an informed supervisor?
    • A sober, awake, adult, who knows what the child did, provides line of sight supervision and is willing to call treatment team if safety plan is violated
  • Access to pornography?
    • Parental controls, computer in central location, password protected
  • In positions of authority over younger children?
    • No babysitting-ever
  • Alarms on bedroom doors?
    • Offenders door alarms, siblings door chimes
safety plans136
Safety Plans
  • What about school and community activities?
    • Who needs to know?
    • Balance community safety and social stigma
  • Contact with potential victims in the community? Over the Phone? Via Social Media?
    • No babysitting
    • Need to check other things individually such as church, camp, sporting events, public pools
    • Sleepovers?
factors to consider
Factors to Consider
  • Individual factors in the youth
  • Families overall health and functioning
    • Do they minimize what their child did?
    • Do they think this was all blown out of proportion?
    • Do they blame the victim?
    • Do they keep secrets
  • Degree of potential harm
  • Youths risk level of reoffense
  • Treatment behavior/progress
some reasons why they fail
Some reasons why they fail
  • Child is hypersexual
  • Child is impulsive
  • Families not willing to follow the plan as written
    • Do not monitor adequately
    • Do not see the need for the plan
    • Are afraid to report violations
treatment for sexually abusive sexually inappropriate behavior in children adolescent
Treatment for Sexually Abusive & Sexually Inappropriate Behavior in Children & Adolescent

The stages of Accomplishment Model

The model is designed as a means of youths to demonstrate and to recognized for their accomplishments in learning, not as a measure of “success” or treatment “progress,” or as a “level and privilege” system. With accomplishment of each stage, the youths with whom we work are thus able to show themselves, their families, and others that they are learning important ideas about treatment, and are able to use these ideas in their everyday life (Rich, 2009).

stage 1 2
STAGE 1 & 2
  • Stage 1, An Introduction to Treatment
        • Learn about treatment, and about oneself and why one is in treatment
            • Understanding sexually abusive and sexually inappropriate behavior is addressed
            • Goals of treatment are identified
  • Stage 2, Understanding Yourself
        • Learn more about oneself—including feelings, attitudes, & ideas
            • Examine how these responses sometimes can come together to contribute to sexually abusive or sexually inappropriate behavior
consent is not simply saying yes
Consent is Not Simply Saying Yes!

The definition of a sexual offence often revolves around consent. In simple terms, it's all about permission (or agreement).

Kahn (2011) outlines that “True Consent” is Only established when the following 5 criteria are met…

True consent requires that both people are emotionally and intellectually equal

True consent requires honesty

True consent requires understanding

True consent requires permission to disagree or to refuse without penalty or harm

True consent requires that both people really understand what is going to happen

stage 3
  • Stage 3, Understanding Dysfunctional Behavior
        • Learn to understand problematic behaviors, and the impact one’s behaviors have on others
            • Dysfunction behavioral cycle and phases of the dysfunctional behavior cycle
            • High-risk situations and behaviors
            • Behavior management, staying safe, & preventing relapse
stage 4
  • Stage 4, Hitting the Target: Making Change Permanent
        • Learn how to better understand and connect with others, make amends for one’s sexually abusive or inappropriate behavior, relate & give back to the community, & build stronger relationships with others
            • Examine how these responses sometimes can come together to contribute to sexually abusive or sexually inappropriate behavior
            • Empathy ,caring, and victim awareness
            • Learning to communicate
              • active listening & non-verbal communication
              • assertiveness vs. aggression
            • Healthy and unhealthy relationships
              • power & control in relationships
              • recognizing boundaries
              • Recognizing healthy & unhealthy sexual relationships
lowering reoffense risk
Lowering Reoffense Risk
  • Increase non-delinquent social involvement
    • Sports
    • Clubs
    • Church activities
    • Non-delinquent friends
  • Stabilize living situation and school involvement
  • Monitor for alcohol and drug use
  • Manage anger
lowering reoffense risk continued
Lowering Reoffense Risk, Continued
  • Restrict contact with negative influences
    • Parental controls for television
    • Examine movie and video game ratings
  • Eliminate access to offense opportunities
    • Password-protect computer, phone
    • Do not allow unsupervised contact with prior victims or similar individuals
lowering reoffense risk continued146
Lowering Reoffense Risk, Continued
  • Parental Involvement!!
    • Our program relies heavily on parental involvement and we have a separate group that meets for the parents.
    • It is based on Tim Kahn’s “Pathways Guide for Parents” and covers things such as
      • Where to turn, understanding the legal issues, evaluation and treatment, overcoming your own denial
      • Direct vs. indirect victims
      • Understanding the sexual offense cycles, grooming and maintenance behaviors and relapse prevention
      • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
parents group
Parents Group
  • Discuss the importance of parents showing interest in the their child’s treatment, becoming comfortable discussing sexual issues, showing respect for boundaries at all times, demonstrating responsible thinking and emphasizing positive reinforcement.
      • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
answering common questions such as
Answering common questions such as:
  • How to tell the difference between normal sexual behavior during childhood and what is cause for concern?
  • How do I know my child is making progress?
  • How long will treatment last?
  • How do I talk with my child about their sexual behavior problem?
  • Who do I have to tell? Principal? Pastor?
  • When will I be able to trust my child around children again?
  • Does this mean they will become an adult sex offender?
  • Can our child go to parks or playgrounds alone?
  • Can our child go to Boy Scout meetings?
  • Can our child sleep overnight at another child’s house?
  • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
parents group149
Parents Group
  • Parents are taught the same “treatment lingo” as their child, and are kept up to date on what their child is learning in treatment so that they can ask specific questions, instead of general “how is it going” or “what are you learning?”
  • We work on getting through denial and minimization, and thinking errors.
  • We spend a lot of time on parental responsibility.
      • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
parents group150
Parents Group
  • Such as limiting TV, video games and computer times.
  • Encourage sports, reading, family games.
  • Monitor what your child is watching on TV and computer.
    • Watch for sexual and violent themes, use the parental controls available to you
  • Encourage physical activity.
  • Supervision and monitoring, especially if younger children are present-no unsupervised contact with children. Supervisors should be adults.
  • No unsupervised access to community spaces.
      • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
parents group151
Parents Group
  • Parental discretion when it comes to sexual behavior.
  • Try keep a regular routine (bedtimes, mealtimes etc.).
  • Pay attention to hygiene.
  • Pay attention to appropriate dress.
  • No TVs in the bedroom
    • too hard to monitor content
    • encourages isolation
  • Watch sexual language, jokes, TV shows in the house.
      • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
parents group152
Parents Group
  • We also spend time on the siblings of adolescents with sexual behavior problems-these children, if neither victim or perpetrator, often get overlooked.
  • It is important to avoid secrets as a family and to let them know as much as it is developmentally reasonable for them to know.
  • Try to keep life for the sibling as normal as possible and not allow what has happened to keep them from engaging in normal activities (such as sleepovers, etc.).
  • Try spend time one on one with them, and consider some counseling as well if this seems like it is needed.
      • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
parents group153
Parents Group
  • Situations where a chaperone is needed, and not needed.
if the victim is a family member
If the victim is a family member
  • Each should have their own separate counselor
  • Review the clarification and restitution letters your abusing child will write in treatment
  • Often parents feel torn, conflicting loyalties come into play.
  • Encourage construction communication and appropriate affection.
      • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
if the victim is a family member155
If the victim is a family member
  • Lastly, family reunification, if this is feasible.
    • This comes only after a through assessment of both the victim and the perpetrator, and successful completion of treatment. Ideally the child’s PO has done a home visit, and all members of the family have agreed to the rules.
    • The child is slowly integrated back into the home, starting with brief visits, moving towards overnight visits, then weekend visits etc.
    • Meetings are held periodically during this process to assess how it seems to be going.
    • From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
if the victim is a family member156
If the victim is a family member
  • Several house rules may be in place such as
    • Where the bedrooms are and whether the doors will have alarms on them.
    • Video monitoring, intercoms, etc.
what does not appear to be helpful
What Does NOT Appear to be Helpful
  • Placing children on public sex offender registries.
  • Segregating children with sexual behavior problems from other children.
    • Such as when foster homes, agencies, and facilities form policies excluding children with a history of sexual offenses.
    • An exception is if the child’s behavior is out of control or poses an acute and substantial risk for serious harm to other children.
  • These policies offer little to no actual community protection.
  • These practices make youth vulnerable to stigma and social disadvantage (which could indirectly increase risk of reoffense).
benson psychological services
Benson Psychological Services
  • Benson Psychological Services, PC offers the following services
    • Individual and Group therapy for Legal Sexually Compulsive Behavior
    • Group Therapy for adult sex offenders
    • Group Therapy for adolescents who have sexually harmed others
    • Partners to offenders group
    • Parents group
    • Partners of those who have problems with legal sexually compulsive behavior
  • You can refer clients by having them call 701-297-7540 and speaking with our intake person, Alyssa, ext 153

Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. (2006). Report of the Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. Retrieved from


Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. (Eds.). (2006). The juvenile sex offender, second edition. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Concerns about teen sexting overblown, according to new UNH research. (2011, December). University of New Hampshire Media Relations. Retrieved from

Kahn, Tim. (year). Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment. Brandon, Vermont: Safer Society Press.

Phippen, A. (2009). Sharing personal images and videos among young people. Retrieved from SW Grid for Learning Website:

Sacco, D. T., Argudin, R., Maguire, J., & Tallon, K. (2010). Sexting: Youth practices and legal implications. Retrieved from the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University Website:

Seto, M.C., Babchishin, K. M., Wood, J. M., & Flynn, S. (2011). Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders. Law and Human Behavior, no journal number specified, 1-11.

Wollert, R. (2012). The implications of recidivism research and clinical experience for assessing and treating federal child pornography offenders: Written testimony presented to the U.S. Sentencing Commission. Child Pornography Offenders, no journal number specified, 1-27.

Zimring, F. E. (2004). An American travesty: Legal responses to adolescent sexual offending. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

  • sex addiction workbook: proven strategies to help you regain control of your life - Tamara PenixSbraga, William T. O'Donohue
  • Stages of Accomplishment - Phil Rich, EdD, MSW
  • Pathways - Timothy Kahn
  • Road to Freedom - John Morin, PhD & Jill Levenson, MSW
  • Adult Relapse Prevention workbook - Charlene Steen, PhD, JD
  • Treating Nonoffending Parents in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: Connections for Family Safety - Jill Levenson & John Morin
  • A L.I.F.E. Guide - LIFE Ministries - Mark Laaser, PhD
  • Manual for Structured Group Treatment with Adolescent Sex Offenders - Jacqueline Page, PsyD and William Murphy, PhD