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Age of Federalism. Presidents George Washington John Adams. Age of Federalism. Washington develops government’s systems – how to govern. Domestic Policies decided by presidents’ advisors 4 Cabinet “Secretary” Positions

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age of federalism

Age of Federalism


George Washington

John Adams

age of federalism1
Age of Federalism

Washington develops government’s systems –

how to govern.

Domestic Policies decided by presidents’ advisors

4 Cabinet “Secretary” Positions

Treasury Alexander Hamilton

State Thomas Jefferson

Att’y General Edmund Randolph

War Henry Knox

judiciary act of 1789

Judiciary Act of 1789

Create a “Courts” system

Among first acts of new administration

Supreme Court consists of

Chief Justice & 5 Associate Justices

13 Federal District Courts & 3 “Circuit Courts”

federalist domestic policy
Federalist Domestic Policy
  • Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan

- “Report on Manufactures…”

- National banking system

- Assumption & Financing of debt

  • Government promotes business & manufacturing
  • Strengthens US economy & world ‘standing’
  • Law and Order – Strong Federal Government

Conflict with Jefferson Over Policy

“Strict” or “Loose” Interpretation of Constitution

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Age of Federalism

Hamilton’s Financial Plans

  • Finance national debt – never pay it back!

- Pay interest to those gov’t. owed money

2. Promote investment in government by business

- Assures investors want government to succeed

3. Tariffs on foreign goods and on domestic

whiskey to collect revenue

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Age of Federalism

Washington’s Problems

  • “Impressment” – British seizing American ships
  • British – French War - Should we take sides?

Federalists – NO Opponents – YES

  • “Citizen Genet” – French diplomat stirs up trouble
  • Spain blocking access to Mississippi River
  • Whiskey Rebellion – Should new government allow

violent protests against its authority?

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Age of Federalism

Washington’s Solutions

The War - Proclamation of Neutrality

- “Jay” Treaty w/ England

Spain - Pinckney’s Treaty

Whiskey Rebellion - Leads Federal Troops – Ends it

First use of national troops to end protest.

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Age of Federalism

Jay’s Treaty with Britain

  • Objectives

- Stop “impressment” of American ships

- Abandon British forts on Northwest frontier

- Expand trade between the two nations in the


  • Problems

- No agreement to stop impressment

- Didn’t stop English from trading fur in US.

- Anti-Feds saw expanded trade as a “sellout”

and betrayal of the Revolution

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Age of Federalism

Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain

  • Objectives

- Secure land claims west of the Appalachians

- Guarantee shipping rights on the Mississippi

  • Results

- Gave up all land but Florida, but set boundary

- Opened Mississippi to American shipping and allowed use of the port of New Orleans

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Age of Federalism

Washington’s Ideology

  • Economy balanced between manufacturing and agriculture
  • Law and Order to assure the new nation’s survival
  • “Isolationism” to prevent foreign influence on US affairs. Avoid dependence in “the critical period”.

Guided (drove) the way the US developed for 12 years

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Age of Federalism

Washington’s Legacy

  • Showed us how to plan to operate government
  • Set nation on the path to growth and world status by: - siding with Hamilton’s financial ideas

- signing Pinckney & Jay Treaties

  • Established precedent of 2 terms for President
  • Established policy of “Isolationism” in his Farewell Address which we would follow for another 90 years.

“It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world..."

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Age of Federalism

Competing Ideologies - Political Parties Emerge

  • Federalists (Hamilton) succeed

- Economic policy

- Peace and expanded trade with Britain

- Establish Federal authority suppressing

Whiskey Rebellion

  • Democratic (Jeffersonian) Republicans challenge

vision of Federalists and organize opposition

- newspaper attacks

- sponsor candidates for office

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Age of Federalism

Adams Presidency

  • John Adams beats Jefferson for President BUT

Jefferson becomes Vice President – opposite parties!

  • Sectionalism emerges (regional favoritism & disputes)

(North for Adams & South for Jefferson)

  • Federalists win, but anger the people, so John Adams’ Presidency is a divisive & troubled one.
  • Competing ideologies exist for a second time –

within a president’s administration

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Age of Federalism
  • French Object to Jay Treaty (w/England)

- Believe it violates the French- American Alliance

- Begin to attack American ships bound for England

  • John Marshall visits French Foreign Minister Talleyrand, and is denied an audience – an international insult
  • 3 low level diplomats X, Y & Z, order $250,000 in bribes just to help Marshall get in to see him!

“Millions for Defense, but not one cent for tribute!”

  • 1798 - US builds a navy & confiscates French ships

Virtual War occurred

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Age of Federalism

Balancing Security with Freedom

Alien & Sedition Acts

Use the document to answer the following:

1) What were the main provisions of the Act? (2)

2) What was the difference between the Alien part and

the Sedition part?

3) How did it violate American principle of liberty?

4) What Constitutional principle did it possibly violate?

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Age of Federalism

Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

  • Nullified Alien & Sedition Acts as unconstitutional
  • Held that states could override Federal law

- Principle of “Nullification” born

  • Jefferson and Madison sponsored laws in VA & KY and try to get other states to pass laws too.
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Age of Federalism
  • Prosser Rebellion  August 30, 1800
  • "First Major Slave Insurrection" 
  • Gabriel Prosser’s 1000 slave army revolts
  • Plan to kill as many white men as possible and set up a slave state in Virginia.
  • Gov. James Monroe ends it, tries & hangs 34 rebels including Prosser