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“FROM THE BRAIN AND THE BRAIN ALONE ARISE OUR PLEASURES, JOYS, LAUGHTER AND JESTS, AS WELL AS OUR SORROWS, PAINS AND GRIEFS”. HIPPOCRATES ca.460 B.C.- ca.370 B.C. BRAIN COMMUNICATION. IN OUR BRAINS, WE HAVE. 100 BILLION NEURONS. 13.5 MILLION NEURONS IN THE SPINAL CORD ALONE.

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slide1
“FROM THE BRAIN AND THE BRAIN ALONEARISE OUR PLEASURES, JOYS, LAUGHTERAND JESTS, AS WELL AS OUR SORROWS, PAINS AND GRIEFS”

HIPPOCRATES

ca.460 B.C.- ca.370 B.C.

slide3

IN OUR BRAINS, WE HAVE

100 BILLION NEURONS

slide5

A SINGLE NEURON MAY HAVE UP

10,000 SYNAPSES SO THERE

COULD BE ABOUT

1 QUADRILLION SYNAPSES IN THE BRAIN

slide6

MESSAGES IN THE

NEURONS TRAVEL

THROUGH

ELECTRICAL

AND CHEMICAL

IMPULSES

slide7

NEURONS CAN FIRE OVER AND OVER

AGAIN ON AN AVERAGE OF 300-400

TIMES A SECOND

slide8

CERTAIN IMPULSES MAY TRAVEL

UP TO 250 MILES PER HOUR

slide10

DENDRITES (SHORT FIBERS) RECEIVE THE

MESSAGE FROM A CELL WHICH IS SENT

THROUGH THE CELL BODY AND THROUGH

THE AXON (LONG FIBERS)

slide12

THE AXON

CARRIES

THE

ELECTRICAL

IMPULSE TO

THE AXON

TERMINAL

WHERE

NEURO-

TRANSMITTERS

ARE

LOCATED.

slide13

SOME

NEURONS

MAY BE

3 FEET LONG !

slide15

NO NEURONS TOUCH

EACH OTHER. THE SMALL

SPACE SEPARATING

THEM IS CALLED A

SYNAPSE.

THE ELECTRICAL

MESSAGE CANNOT JUMP

ACROSS THE SYNAPSE SO

THE MESSAGE IS SENT

THROUGH A CHEMICAL

MESSAGE CALLED A

NEUROTRANSMITTER.

slide16

THE CHEMICAL MESSAGE IS THEN RECEIVED BY THE

DENDRITE OF THE NEXT CELL WHICH TRIGGERS

AN ELECTRICAL IMPULSE THROUGH THE

RECEIVING CELL

slide18

IN ADDITION, THERE ARE ABOUT

ONE TRILLION GLIAL CELLS IN THE BRAIN

slide19

GLIAL CELLS DO NOT SEND

ELECTROCHEMICAL SIGNALS LIKE

NEURONS.

THEY SUPPORT THE NEURONS IN THE

FOLLOWING WAYS:

THEY ARE 10 TIMES

MORE NUMEROUS

THAN NEURONS

slide20

GLIAL CELLS

PROVIDE STRUCTURAL SUPPORT

PROVIDE NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT

HELP WITH CELL MAINTENANCE

slide23

S ensory neurons

A fferent neurons

M otor neurons

E fferent neurons

neurotransmitters
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
  • ACETYLCHOLINE (ACH)-basic bodily processes like movement
  • Botulism shuts off release of ACH
  • DOPAMINE – control of body movement, mood (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s)

(some schizophrenics have excess)

  • ENDORPHINS – relieves pain increases sense of well-being (morphine within)
  • SEROTONIN-plays role in mood, body temperature, sleep
slide25

WE HAVE KNOWN ABOUT ELECTRICAL MESSAGES

FOR MANY YEARS, p.58

BUT OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHEMICAL FUNCTIONS IS RELATIVELY NEW.

SCIENTISTS HAVE IDENTIFIED OVER 300

NEUROTRANSMITTERS. SOME ARE:

GLUTAMATE DOPAMINE

ACETYLCHOLINE ENDORPHINS

NOREPHENEPRHINE GABA

(GLAN) SEROTONIN

(DEGA Star)

EXCITATORYINHIBITORY