Digestive & Urinary SystemEssential Question: What is the purpose of the digestive system? Ch. 17 – Lesson 1 Standard: 1.1.6 – Students will analyze the effect of behaviors & habits relating to diet & other choices on various systems like the digestive system. I Can Statement: I can learn more about my body systems and the purpose they have.
What’s your Health Status? • Answer yes, no, sometimes • I eat foods that are low in fat & high in fiber everyday. • I limit my intake of salty foods, high sugar snacks and soft drinks. • I avoid using food as a way of coping with my emotions. • I brush my teeth at least twice a day and floss at least once a day.
Health Status – cont. 5. I chew each bite of food thoroughly before swallowing. 6. I wash my hands before preparing food or eating. 7. I do not use laxatives except when recommended by a health professional. 8. I drink at least 8 – 8 ounce glasses of water each day.
Health Status – cont. 9. I seek medical attention when diarrhea persists for more than 48 hours. 10. If necessary, I would discuss with a health care professional any changes in urine color or odor, as well as any changes in frequency of urination.
The Digestive System • Draw-describe the path that food takes from the time you ingest it until it is eliminated from the body.
Functions of the Digestive System • 3 Main Processes • Digestion • Absorption • Elimination
Structures of the Digestive System • Process begins in the mouth • Ingestion, 1st stage • Structures involved in ingestion 1(teeth) 2(Salivary glands) 3(tongue)
The Esophagus • When swallowed, food enters here. • A muscular tube about 10 inches long. • Connects pharynx with the stomach.
Peristalsis • A series of involuntary muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract. • Action is like a wave moving through the muscle to push food & fluid through.
Sphincter Muscle/The Stomach • Sphincter: Located at the entrance to the stomach allows food to move from the esophagus into the stomach. • Stomach: Flexible organ (food may stay in stomach up to 6 hours) • Stomach expands when you eat • Stomach is a hollow, saclike organ enclosed in a muscular wall
3 Tasks in Digestion • 1. Mixing foods with gastric juices; helps digest proteins; kills bacteria • 2. Hydrochloric Acid: strong enough to dissolve metal. Mucous forms to protect lining of stomach. • 3. Storing swallowed food & liquid. • 4. Moving food into the small intestine. Food is converted to chyme.
The Pancreas, Liver & Gallbladder • Pancreas: produces enzymes that breakdown carbs, fats & proteins • Liver: produces bile to breakdown & absorb fats. • Gallbladder: at mealtime bile is secreted from here & mixes with fats.
The Small Intestine • 20 to 23 feet long • 1 inch in diameter • Consists of 3 parts: 1 (Duodenum) 2 (Jejunum) 3 ( ileum) • Inner wall contains villa (fingerlike projections; nutrients sent here)
The Liver • The liver is the body’s heaviest gland & largest organ after the skin. • Produces bile and removes toxins such as alcohol from the blood.
Large Intestine • Undigested parts of food pass into the colon • 2.5 inches in diameter • 5 – 6 feet long • Absorbs water; vitamins and salts • Eliminate wastes
Ch. 17 – Lesson 2Care & Problems of the Digestive System • Essential Question: What problems should we be aware of with our digestive system? • Standard: 1.1.6 – Students will analyze the effect of individual behaviors, choices & habits relating to diet on various body systems like the digestive system.
Health Behaviors • Eat nutrient rich foods • Healthy eating habits reduce risk of problems with digestion • Choose high fiber foods • Low in fat • Wash hands before eating • Eat slow; chew thoroughly • Drink 8 glasses of water • Don’t eat when emotional
Problems of Digestive System • Minor discomfort caused by indigestion • Upset stomach • Bacterial infections • Food borne illnesses • appendicitis
Digestion Problems • Indigestion: feeling of discomfort in the upper abdomen, caused by eating too much, eating too quickly, spicy food, high fat content, stress. • Heartburn: burning sensation in center of chest; acid reflux, hiatal hernia (stomach pushes through an opening. • Gas: produced by carbs/cramps • Constipation: bowel movements become difficult, caused by not drinking enough water, need more fiber in diet.
Ch. 17 – Hands on Health (pg. 449) • Make Posters – Hands on Health • Follow instructions – Get a partner or small group • Poster Board etc – Present & hang up in class (Work on these at school)
Research – Structural ProblemsLesson 2 • Do a research paper on these topics and a poster (3 to a group) • Gallstones Cirrhosis • Appendicitis Crohns disease • Gastritis Colon cancer • Lactose intolerance Colitis • Peptic ulcer Hemorrhoids • Tooth Decay
The Urinary SystemCh. 17 – Lesson 3 • Essential Question: What are the structures & functions of the urinary system? • Standards: 1.1, 1.3, 1.1.6 Students will analyze effects of individual behavior choices & habits relating to various systems.
Urinary System Facts • The kidneys use filtration to cleanse the blood. • The urinary system removes liquid waste. • Problems in the urinary system, if left untreated, can affect the entire body and may result in death when severe.
Functions of the Urinary System • Main function: filter waste • Filters extra fluid from blood • Urine is liquid waste material excreted from the body • Urine contains water and body wastes that contain nitrogen; can become toxic to cells if it remains in the body too long
Kidneys • Bean shaped organ • Size of fist • Near the middle of back, just below rib cage • Removes waste from blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons (functional unit of the kidney)
Kidney – cont. • Contains 1 million nephrons • Each nephron consists of a ball formed of capillaries called a glomerulus; and a small tube called a renal tubule that functions as a filtering funnel. • They monitor & maintain body acid base and water balance • The urinary system filters 50 gallons of blood and produce 1 to 2 quarts of urine each day.
Vocabulary – Ch. 17 • Ureters: tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder, 8 to 10 inches long. • Urine is passed from ureter to the bladder every 15 seconds. • Bladder: a hollow muscular organ that acts as a reservoir for urine. • Urethra: the tube that leads from the bladder to the outside of the body. • Pg. 455: Exploring health issues (turn-in) • Read – write short answer to ACTIVITIES & QUESTIONS 1 and 2
Health Behaviors & The Urinary System • Drink 8 – 8 ounce glasses of water a day • Eat well balanced diet • Practice good hygiene & personal health care • Have regular health – medical check ups. Report an changes of color or odor of urine.
Problems of Urinary System • Infection • Blockage of Urine • Cystitis: inflammation of the bladder caused by bacteria • Urethritis: inflammation of the urethra caused by bacteria • Symptoms of both is: burning pain during urination, increased frequency of urination, fever, presence of blood in urine • Treatment: antibiotics
Kidney Problems • Can be Life Threatening! • Nephritis • Kidney stones: Calcium deposits (pass or treatment required) • Uremia: serious, decrease of blood filtering
Kidney Failure • Hemodialysis: artificial kidney removes wastes from blood • Peritoneal dialysis: a catheter; tube provides passage way for fluids. Inserted into abdominal wall to remove toxins. • Kidney transplant: replacement by a donor
Ch. 17 – Lesson 4 & 5 • Lesson 4: Ch. 17 Review: Pg. 460 • Exploring Health Terms 1-12 • Recalling the Facts 1-12 • Lesson 5: Thinking Critically – 461 • Answer # 1 • Answer # 2 • Answer # 3