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Of Mice And Men

Of Mice And Men. Unit 2 The Novel BHHS 9 th Grade English. Overview.

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Of Mice And Men

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  1. Of Mice And Men Unit 2The NovelBHHS 9th Grade English

  2. Overview Students apply the knowledge of literary elements explored in the short story unit to a new literary form - the novel. They discuss the similarities and differences between how those elements are developed in short stories and novels. Setting and characterization are highlighted, with particular attention paid to the question of which characters in Of Mice and Men may be called honorable.

  3. Objectives • Learn about the history of the novel as a literary form. • Recognize the importance of historical context to the appreciation of setting and character. • Identify major and minor characters. • Analyze and explain characterization techniques for major and minor characters. • Explain that novels may have more than one plot and explain the use of multiple plots. • Recognize the importance of point of view in a novel and why it wouldn’t be the same story told from someone else’s point of view.

  4. Unit 2 Day 1&2 Objective: • Learn about the history of the novel as a literary form. • Recognize the importance of historical context to the appreciation of setting and character.

  5. History of the Novel: What is a novel? • E.M. Forster in Aspects of the Novel cites the definition of a Frenchman named Abel Chevalley: "a fiction in prose of a certain extent“ /over 50,000 words. • The novel is one form of an extended fictional prose narrative which emphasizes character development.. It differs from allegory (which functions to teach some sort of moral lesson) and romance (with its emphasis on spectacular and exciting events designed to entertain) in its • The novel, however, arises from the desire to depict and interpret human character. The reader of a novel is both entertained and aided in a deeper perception of life's problems.

  6. History of the Novel: What is a novel? • The novel places more emphasis on character, especially one well-rounded character, than on plot. • Another initial major characteristic of the novel is realism--a full and authentic report of human life. • The traditional novel has: • a unified and plausible plot structure • sharply individualized and believable characters • a pervasive illusion of reality

  7. History of the Novel: Where does it Come From? The roots of the novel come from a number of sources: • Elizabethan prose fiction • French heroic romance • Spanish picaresque tales

  8. History of the Novel: How did the Novel Come to be? • There was a public demand for the novel. With the expansion of the middle class by the middle of the 18th century, more people could read and they had money to spend on literature. • There was already a high interest in autobiography, biography, journals, diaries, memoirs. Alexander Pope led to an increased interest in the human character. • The early English novel departs from the allegory and the romance with its vigorous attempt at realism and it was initially strongly associated with the middle class, their pragmatism, and their morality. • Pamela, (I, 1740; II, 1741) by Samuel Richardson, is usually considered the first fully-realized English novel.

  9. Of Mice and Men: Historical Background The novel takes place during the Great Depression. Causes of Great Depression: • Stock market crash • People buying on margin go broke. • Over 600 banks a year close. People lose their savings. • Over extended credit • Many people purchased expensive goods on credit • People bought land as investments • The Dust Bowl • Drought and winds destroy farm land in the Midwest. • Value of farm land across country drops 40%. • Farmers' share of national income dropped from 15 to 9 percent. • Farmers move West, most become itinerant farm workers.

  10. Of Mice and Men: Historical Background Causes of Great Depression Cont.: • Reduction of purchasing across the board • Market crashed and fears resulted in people not purchasing non essential goods • Lack of selling goods led to reduced production of goods and people were laid off • With people out of work, they bought less all around which affected every aspect of America’s economy and started a downward spiral of manufacturing, spending and unemployment. • America’s economic policy with Europe • Imposed trade tariffs on European goods, and when Europe did the same thing to U.S. goods, less trade with Europe meant less production and fewer jobs. • Bank Failures • Banks couldn’t get money back on foreclosed homes. • No FDIC insurance, if a bank closed, you lost any saving invested that you did not get out. • Runs on banks wiped out cash flow.

  11. Of Mice and Men: Historical Background Results of the Great Depression • Unemployment rate of 25% • Industrial production dropped 46% • Crop prices fell as much as 60% • Nearly 20% of all farms in the US were foreclosed on. • Banks failed because foreclosure values on land below loan values • Men left their homes and families in search of work. • Many families from the Midwest moved to California, Oregon and Washington states. • Over 800,000 people left the Midwest looking for work • Shanty towns popped up all over the west with migrant workers and their families • Wages paid to itinerant workers was too low to keep families above the poverty level.

  12. Of Mice and Men: Social Conditions • Hobo Jungles: Out door camps varying from tents/tarps to scrap lean-tos. • Jim Crow era in the South. Jim Crow laws were judicially supported racism. • Sexism was very common. Women were expected to cook, clean and raise the kids. Women had just gotten the right to vote. • Racism was alive in the North and West, but not officially sanctioned by law as it was in the South. If black Americans moved to white areas, they had to live in the poorer parts of the town. • Mental Institutions: • Sedated patients and left in crowded bunk rooms • Treated with hydro therapy: Hot or cold baths for hours • Electric shock therapy of the brain • Lobotomies: ½ the brains’ frontal lobe is removed

  13. Day 2-3 Unit 2 Objective: • Learn key literary terminology for the novel genre • Learn key vocabulary words from the novel to increase reading comprehension

  14. Day 2 Unit 2 Literary Terms • Antagonist • Characterization • Characters: subordinate characters • Characters: Flat • Characters: Round • Conflict • Extended Metaphor: A comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem. • Motif: A recurring object, concept, or structure in a work of literature which creates a theme. (Snake motif in Harry Potter Series) • Parallel Plot: Plots in which each main character has a separate but related story line that merges in the end. • Protagonist • Setting • Theme

  15. Of Mice and Men: Vocabulary Words Look at the vocabulary hand out for Of Mice and Men Word Map: Term & Definition Picture or Symbol What the word isn’t Synonyms

  16. Unit 2 Day 4&5 Imagery Objective: Understanding and identifying the use of imagery in a novel.

  17. Of Mice and Men: Imagery • There are four imagery loaded passages in chapter one: page 1, the last paragraph on page 7, the middle paragraph on page 10, and page 16. There are five recurring images on these pages: trees and leaves, sun and light, water, animals, sound. • Make a chart for each recurring image. • There should be five rows and 2 columns. • On the top row write the recurring image (trees/leaves, for example), write the sense and page number in the left column. Write quotation in the right hand column. • Write the page number of the passage you want students to analyze in each row of the left column.

  18. Of Mice and Men: Imagery 2. Write a paragraph analyzing the imagery in chapter one. Do not write a separate paragraph for each image. Write about all images together. • Make a broad statement about imagery in chapter 1 for the topic sentence. • Use specific examples for supporting details. Cite them correctly. (Authors last name space pg#) Example: (Steinbeck 1) • Discuss author's purpose and how imagery affects the theme.

  19. Of Mice and Men: Imagery 3. Consider the following questions: • How do images change as the chapter progresses? What does that symbolize? • What might image repetition mean? • Is there a pattern between the beginning and ending images of chapter one? • How does water interact with nature? with man?

  20. Unit 2 Day 6: Characterization Objective: • Analyze and explain characterization techniques for major and minor characters. Lesson: Using the characterization handouts for the two protagonists, write how each character is revealed (characterization).

  21. Unit 2 Day 6:Characterization • Read the descriptions of Lennie and George in on pages 2 and 3 in chapter 1. • Quote the description that describes each aspect of the character,. • Write a generalized statement in the smaller test box • Draw the detail on the character figure when possible

  22. Unit 2 Day 6: Characterization

  23. Unit 2 Day 6: Characterization

  24. Unit 2 Day 6: Characterization Appearance of Lennie. • Denim trousers and denim coat - obviously working clothes, probably all he has. He wears a black, shapeless hat that seems to have been worn many times and has no style about it. Carries a tight bundle roll of his blanket, really carrying his bed on his back - no roots. George’s opposite - “a huge man, shapeless of face with large, pale eyes, with wide, sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws”.

  25. Unit 2 Day 6: Characterization The character of Lennie • Heavier, more clumsy actions - he’s likened to a great bear, lolling forwards without any real defined action. He “snorted into the water like a horse”, even though the water was quite scummy. Likes the ripples he makes, this seems to make him like a child. He copies George’s actions, again childlike. Forgetful - forgets what they are doing there, whether he had his work permit or not, etc. Likes to touch soft and furry things, particularly mice and rabbits - almost like a comfort blanket, again, very childish. “In a moment Lennie came crashing back through the brush. He carried one small willow stick in his hand.” Doesn’t go and do the job he was sent to do, gets waylaid, like a child. Lennie likes to be reassured by George, particularly with the story of their future. Worries when George gets cross and thinks that George may leave him.

  26. Unit 2 Day 6: Characterization What do you learn about Lennie from the way he speaks and from what he says? • “Tha’s good”- uneducated • “You drink some George” – doesn’t listen • “Look, George. Look what I done.” – uneducated, child-like, easily amused.

  27. Unit 2 Day 6: Characterization Appearance of George • Denim trousers and denim coat - obviously working clothes, probably all he has. He wears a black, shapeless hat, seems to have been worn many times and has no style about it. Carries a tight bundle roll of his blanket, really carrying his bed on his back - no roots. “He was small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp, strong features. Every part of him was defined: small, strong hands, slender arms, a thin and bony nose.”

  28. Unit 2 Day 6: Characterization The character of George. • sharp actions - “snapped the moisture off.” “George knelt beside the pool and drank from his hand with quick scoops.” - his actions are swift and precise. He’s more cautious about the water he drinks though - got common sense. Gets angry for being told by the bus driver that they were nearly at the ranch when they weren’t - doesn’t like being taken advantage of. Gets cross with Lennie fairly quickly but does keep forgiving him and giving him another chance. Knows how to get off half a day’s work by not turning up until the ranch workers have already gone off to the fields.

  29. Unit 2 Day 7&8: Characterization Objective: • Analyze and explain characterization techniques for major and minor characters. • Lesson: Read pages 1-16 and answer questions about what we learn regarding George and Lennie

  30. Unit 2 Day 7&8: Characterization Questions: • Describe the relationship between the two men. • Give one example that demonstrates the relationship. • What do we learn about their past? • What do we learn about their immediate future? • Describe their dreams about the possible distant future. • What kind of worker do you think George is? What does he say or do that gives you this impression?

  31. Unit 2 Day 7&8: Characterization • They are dependent on each other. Lennie makes it easy for George to get hired because as part of a team, Lennie will work very hard and is desirable as a worker. George takes care of Lennie and helps him through life generally. They seem to have been through this argument of splitting up before as Lennie knows how to win George round. Lennie is definitely led by George in all things and he obeys him pretty much without argument. They also have a dream of having their own ranch together which they rely on each other to believe in so that they never give up hope. They need each other for company, and as they say, their friendship is what makes them different to other workers. • See above • They were in Weed working, presumably on a similar type of job to the one they are going to. They were run out of Weed because Lennie assaulted a woman by holding onto her red dress and she screamed, leading to an inflated situation from which Lennie and George had to run.

  32. Unit 2 Day 7&8: Characterization 4. They are about to arrive at a ranch where they are expected to arrive for jobs. It will be another routine job but for tonight, they are going to spend the night under the stars. 5. Like many workers, they dream of owning their own ranch and working for themselves. The farm seems as if it will have large quantities of food and warmth and comfort. Details are on pgs 14 - 15. Lennie dreams particularly of being allowed to tend lots of rabbits. Lennie believes in this future whole-heartedly although perhaps George does not. “I ain’t got time for no more” George says suddenly. The question is “What is their situation actually like in comparison to this dream?” 6. Not a very hard worker, maybe lazy? When he says he is going to stay by the river tonight and go to the farm tomorrow because they will be “bucking grain bags and busting a gut “. He wants to get their late and miss part of the work.

  33. Unit 2 Day 9: Novel Opening Objective: To engage with the language of the text and extend knowledge of characterisation. • What makes an interesting opening in a novel? • Look at your handout. The left hand column of the content frame gives elements of a good opening. • With a partner, you are going to discuss examples from the novel that relate to each element on the left. You will each complete the right hand column of the content frame. You have 15 minutes. • We will read pgs. 17-39 aloud in class. Whatever we do not get to in class today is assigned reading for tomorrow. • Be read for a CFA quiz!

  34. Day 10 Warm Up: CFA Quiz • Who is Candy? • Who is Curley? • What two lies does George tell the boss about Lennie? • Why does Candy say that Curley doesn’t like Lennie? • Who comes into the bunkhouse looking for Curley? • What does Lennie want from Slim? • How does Lennie feel about the ranch? What does he ask George to do about it? • Where does George tell Lennie to go if they get in any trouble?

  35. Answers • Candy is the swamper on the ranch • Curley is the ranch owner’s/boss’s son • He says Lennie was kicked by a horse and that they are cousins • Curley doesn’t like big guys • Curley’s wife • Lennie wants a pup • He doesn’t like it and wants to leave • George tells Lennie to go to the spot they camped at by the river

  36. Day 10 • Objective:Understand the roles Slim and Curley represent the roles of hero and villain in the novel. • Whole class – Read to the top of page 26, to the entrance of Curley. • Write your impressons of Curley and then your impressions of Slim. • Whole class – discussion of students’ first impressions of Slim.

  37. Day 10

  38. Day 11 Ch. 2 Discussion Q’s • What lies does George tell the boss? How does each lie reveal something different about George? • Describe George and Lennie’s relationship. What can you compare it to? • What examples of humor and tenderness do we see in this chapter? • How does George need Lennie? • What did Lennie do to get in trouble in Weed? • What is George’s dream? What does he want out of it? • What is Lennie’s dream? What does he want out of it? • How do their dreams relate to the American historical context? • What is you impression of Curley? Why? • How is Curley’s wife described? What does George warn Lennie about? • Who is the most respected and popular guy on the ranch?

  39. Day 12: Ch 3 • Objective: To reflect on how characters are utilised to develop plot • Whole class: Teacher and volunteers read pages 40-53. • Write the difference between dynamic and static characters. • List the different types of relationships you see in Chapter 3. • In pairs: Make a list of all the different kinds of relationships that have been revealed so far in the novel. Discuss if they are dynamic or static, support with evidence from the novel. • Finish reading Chapter 3 at home (through pg 69) if we do not do it in class.

  40. Day 13 • Objective: Explore the theme of dreams in the novel

  41. Day 14 • Objective: Understand Steinbeck’s use of allegory and how Steinbeck increases a sense of tragedy. • Answer the questions about chapter 3 on your own piece of notebook paper. Be sure use complete sentences.

  42. Day 14: Ch 3 Questions • What further background info do we learn about George and Lennie? • What do we see about Slim’s personality that comes out? • What are Slim’s comments on migrant workers? • What sympathy does the the reader develop for Lennie? • What is the confidence the two men share and the setting details that Steinbeck provides in which they can do it? • How is the dream becoming nearer to the truth? • Why is Candy so generously offering his own money too? • Are the migrants only buying a farm? What else are they acquiring? • How is Candy similar to his own dog? (pg 63.) • What do you think of Carlson? His role? How is this is survival of the strongest? Why can’t Slim intervene? • Candy’s dog’s shooting – how is this an allegory for the lives of the migrants? What is Steinbeck telling us about the prospects of weaker characters?

  43. Day 15: Ch. 3 • Objective: Understand how Steinbeck increases a sense of tragedy. • Read pg 53 – 65 • On your own piece of paper, answer the following Questions: • Where are Slim and Curley? • Introduce the students of the technique – juxtaposition: In literature, juxtaposition is a literary device wherein the author places a person, concept, place, idea or theme parallel to another. The purpose of juxtaposing two directly/indirectly related entities close together in literature is to highlight the contrast between the two and compare them. • What is juxtaposed with the fight scene? • Do you think that Lennie will get his rabbits? Why / not? • What does the positioning of this fight scene straight after the extended dream conversation make you feel about the likelihood of their ever getting their dream?

  44. Day 16: Ch 4 • Objective: Explore the character of Crooks and the theme of loneliness and the outsider. Read pgs 66-76 aloud • Add Crook’s dream and quotes to your chart • Name 4 characters who are outsiders in the novel. Why are they outsiders? • With a partner: list what we learn about Crooks. List each of the items Steinbeck describes and note what these items reveal about Crooks’ character. • What extra information have we learnt about Crooks and Lennie during their conversation? • Why do you think Crooks tries to scare Lennie? Why doesn’t he let up until Lennie threatens him?

  45. Day 17: Ch 4 Cont. • Understand the relationship Crooks has with the other character • Read pgs 77-83 and answer the following questions on you own paper. • What is Crooks’ similarity to Lennie ,Candy and Curley’s wife ? • Why does Crooks have the desire to also share in the dream? • What does Curley’s wife interrupt when she comes in? • Is it ominous that she comes in between the migrants and their dream? Explain. • What does Curley’s wife say and think about her husband? • How does she treat Crooks? How can she get away with it? • How does Crooks react physically to Curley’s wife’s threats? What might his reaction represent? • Why do you think Crooks retracts his wish to join them in buying the farm? • How much power / status does Crooks have? What future does he have? Would his life be better without the Great Depression, or the same?

  46. Day 18: Ch 5 • Examine the way Steinbeck presents Curley’s wife. • How would you describe Curleys’ wife? What are you basing your description on? • Read pgs 84 – 92. • Add Curley’s wife’s dream to the chart, along with quotes to support it. • Whose viewpoint of her to date had we heard? • How was this different to the reality we learn in Ch 5? • Look back at the description of Curley’s wife in death. How does she appear different than her previous appearances/descriptions? • Write down the descriptions of her / things that she says which lead us to have more sympathy for her.

  47. Day 19: Ch. 5 Cont. • Objective:Examine the way Steinbeck presents Curley’s wife. • Finish reading the chapter (through pg 98) • Who do we feel sorry for at the end of this chapter? Sorriest for? Least sorry for? • Create a 2 column chart about the positive things the men say about Curleys’ wife and the negative things they say about Curley’s wife. • What other women are discussed in the novel? How are they referred to? • How does Steinbeck hide the true character of Curleys’ wife until right before she dies? • Do you sympathise with Curley’s Wife at the end of the novel? Write a paragraph explaining your answer. Be sure to use examples from the novel to support your answer.

  48. Day 20: Ch 6 • Objective: To consolidate understanding and make effective use of information and language in their own work • Was there an alternative to killing Lennie? • Could he ever have survived? • Do you blame George? • Who do you blame? • How is the tragedy increased? • What do you think of Curley? Carlson? Why does Carlson get the last words of the novel – what’s the message / effect? • How did George get the gun? • Did Lennie die happy? • Why does the novel end as it began? • What do you think of the way George killed Lennie? Sensitive? • How important are Slim’s comments at the end of the novel? • What hope is there for George now? What will he do now?

  49. Day 21: Closure • How does Steinbeck use animals to foreshadow the events of the novel? • Candy’s dog • Puppy • Snake swimming at the end • Why do you think Steinbeck has Lennie hallucinate at the end of the story? How does this help us sympathize with George and help us justify his actions? • Theme –story about the rabbits. What precedes each retelling of this story? What is the function of telling this story to Lennie? • How does Steinbeck’s description of the setting in chapter 6 foreshadow Lennie’s death? • Besides Lennie and the snake, what else dies in chapter 6? • What happens to the dreams of each character? • Do you think this novel is optimistic, pessimistic or a combination? Explain your answer and give at least three examples to support your answer.

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