Jihad. Sequence . Concepts Various Kinds of Jihad History and Issues Is Jihad Terrorism ? Epilogue. Outline. What is Islam about? Definition of Jihad Jihad in Islamic Terminology Aim/Objective of Jihad Elements of Jihad Levels of Jihad Significance of Jihad
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Sequence Concepts Various Kinds of Jihad History and Issues Is Jihad Terrorism ? Epilogue
Outline • What is Islam about? • Definition of Jihad • Jihad in Islamic Terminology • Aim/Objective of Jihad • Elements of Jihad • Levels of Jihad • Significance of Jihad • War in Islam • Jihad and Terrorism • Roots of Fundamentalism
What is Islam about? • Islam “salam”Peace, Submission, Salvation • Order, Harmony, and Integrity • Within one’s soul and society
Concept • The triliteral root jīmhādālج ه د occurs 41 times in the Quran, in five derived forms: • 27 times as the form III verb jāhada (جَٰهَدَ) • four times as the noun jihād (جِهَاد) • once as the noun juh'd (جُهْد) • five times as the verbal noun jahd (جَهْد) • four times as the form III active participlemujāhidīn (مُجَٰهِدِين)
Concept • Meaning from Arabic “Juhd” • Dictionary: Struggle, striving • Practical : A determined struggle in the cause of Allah in good “Jihad fiSabilillah” • Can be termed as struggle of various types
Concept Cont… A person engaged in jihad is called a Mujahid, the plural is Mujahideen In Modern Standard Arabic, term jihad is used for a struggle for any cause, violent or non-violent, religious or secular 5th/6th pillar of Islam.
Concept cont…. As Military Warfare (Qittal) With certain conditions and practice it is termed as Jihad bi-Saif The term Jihad is generally used in fiqh manuals in reference to military combat
Quranic View Al-Hujraat Al-Nissa Al-Infaal Al-Tauba
Preaching Jihad Pickthall O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight. If there be of you twenty steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a hundred (steadfast) they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are a folk without intelligence. Surat Al-'Anfāl /65 اے نبی! مسلمانوں کو جہاد کی ترغیب دو۔ اور اگر تم بیس آدمی ثابت قدم رہنے والے ہوں گے تو دو سو کافروں پر غالب رہیں گے۔ اور اگر سو (ایسے) ہوں گے تو ہزار پر غالب رہیں گے۔ اس لیے کہ کافر ایسے لوگ ہیں کہ کچھ بھی سمجھ نہیں رکھتے
In Ahadiths, • Reference 1: • Hazrat Abu Qatada (RA) Muslim,Kitabul Amara,Bab min Katal Fi Sabillillah • Reference 2 : • Hazrat Abdullah bin Masud (RA) Bukhari, Kitab ul Jihad, Bab Fazlul Jihad.
Objectives as described in Quran • According to verses [Qur'an 8:39] • The Qur'an implies two objectives: • Uproot fitnah (فتنة) • Establish supremacy of Islam in the world
Aim/Objective of Jihad • To be Purified of sins • To attain true humanity • To achieve order peace and harmony within the soul and society
Two Elements of Jihad • Spreading the Word of God • Enjoining Good, Forbidding Evil
Significance of Jihad Fifth pillar of Islamic practice
War in Islam • War only when • Inevitable, • When preaching is prevented, • When Muslims are oppressed
Roots of Fundamentalism • What is fundamentalism? • Theological basis - 9:36, • Historical Roots - Colonialism, Resistance and Revivalists movements, Occupied Land • Social situation • Lack of Education, Poverty, Fragmentation
Various Types of Jihad • Jihad bilMaal • Jihad bilQalum (pen) • Jihad bilSaif (Qital) • Greatest is Jihad bilNafs (Jihad-e-Akbar) • While returning from Battle of Hunain The holy Prophet said “ we came from Jihad-e-Asgher to Jihad-e-Akbar
Jihad bil-ma’al Wealth is given by Allah and it should be spent in His way Necessary source for every Jihad If everyone cant participate physically, they can participate financially
Jihad bil-Qalum (Pen) To fight with pen Against ignorance, Illiteracy, Social evils Mental persuasion for teachings of Islam Superior to Jihad bil Maal
Jihad bi-na’fs • Fighting with inner self against the evils • Because ,Rightness of all actions depends on precision of inner-self • It means controlling evil desires of Nafs-e-Ammara (Evil Self) • Requires the greatest efforts • Superior to all kinds of Jihads
JIHAD AL-AKBAR The highest kind of jihad is to strive against one's self and restrain oneself from evil desires Quran say's “And those who strive in Our cause. We will certainly guide them in Our paths,For verily Allah is with those who do right.” The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once said “the best jihad is that one does against one's self and desires
Jihad bil Saif (Qital) A distinctive feature of Islam Jihad in the form of warfare High honor for Shaheed and Ghazi Option of last resort Concept became debatable in these days
Jihad as warfare (Qitaal) • In the Qur’an the term used for this form of Jihad is Qittaal • The only form of warfare permissible under in Islamic jurisprudence • May be declared against : • Apostates, • Rebels, • Violent Groups, • Non-Muslim combatants,
Rules for Jihad • Classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, the rules regarding armed warfare are covered at great length. • Not killing women, children and non-combatants • Not to damage cultivated or residential areas
Levels of Jihad • Three levels: • Personal: That of the soul • Verbal: Raising one's voice in the name of Allah on behalf of justice. • "The most excellent jihad is the speaking of truth in the face of a tyrant" (Hadith) • Physical: Combat waged in defense against oppression and transgression • Profoundly misunderstood in today's world
Various Views about Jihad Jihad has been classified by sunni scholars as • Jihād al-akbar • (the greater jihad), the struggle against one's soul (nafs), • Jihād al-asghar • (the lesser jihad), the external, physical effort, often implying fighting • Similar view of the shiite scholars about Jihad
Another view The Hanbali scholars believe that "internal Jihad" is important but they suggests those Hadith as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword".