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Chapter 10: Studying the Text . By: Shannon Lewis and Kim Burnell. “Study without reflection is a waste of time.” Confucius. “…students who study text not only know how to work hard but also know how to work smart .” Vacca et al. .

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chapter 10 studying the text

Chapter 10: Studying the Text

By: Shannon Lewis and Kim Burnell

study without reflection is a waste of time confucius
“Study without reflection is a waste of time.” Confucius
  • “…students who study text not only know how to

work hard but also know how to work smart.”

Vacca et al.

studying should contain concentrated effort and reflective thinking
Studying should contain concentrated effort and reflective thinking
  • Older students are expected to learn from the text, but most of these students don't know how to.
  • Students need to be taught how to:
    • Approach the Assignment.
    • Analyze the reading task at hand.
    • Make plans for reading
    • Use strategies that suit their purpose for studying.
the importance of text approach
The Importance of Text-Approach
  • Students need to understand text relationships, then they can respond to the text.
  • External Text Structure: Format features such as the table of contents, indexes, bibliography, appendixes, etc, that help facilitate reading.
    • Each chapter has an introductory, summary, headings, charts, graphs, and illustrations.
  • Internal Text Structure: Patterns of the text: Descriptive, sequence, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and problem and solution.
text patterns
Text Patterns
  • Description: providing information about a topic, concept, event, object, person, idea, and so on. Ideas are connected through description by listing important characteristics.
  • Sequence: Putting facts, events, or concepts into sequence.
text patterns1
Text Patterns
  • Cause and Effect:Shows how facts, events, or concepts happen or come into being (effects) because of other facts, events, or concepts (causes)
    • Ex: “The fire was started by sparks from a campfire left by a careless camper.” Vacca et al.
  • Problem and Solution: Shows the development of a problem and one or more solutions to the problem.
signal words in text structure
Signal Words in Text Structure




Comparison and Contrast

Cause and Effect

Problem and Solution






First Second

To begin with


In fact

For example




This led to









Study Strategies

  • Graphic Organizers
  • Making and Taking Notes
  • Writing Summaries

Study Guides

  • Text Pattern Guide
  • Selective Reading Guide
graphic organizers
Graphic Organizers
  • Visual displays that help learners comprehend and retain textually important information.
  • Allows students to identify:
    • What parts of the text are important.
    • How the Ideas and Concepts encountered in the text are related.
    • Where the students can find specific information to support more important ideas.
avoid using the classic format
Avoid using the classic format
  • Main idea
    • Idea Supporting I
      • Detail supporting A
      • Detail Supporting A
        • Detail supporting 2
        • Detail Supporting 2
    • Idea Supporting I
      • Detail Supporting B
      • Detail Supporting B
types of graphic organizers
Types of Graphic Organizers
  • Word maps
  • Semantic maps
  • Semantic webs
  • Flow charts
  • Concept matrices
  • Tree Diagrams
comparison and contrast matrices
Comparison and Contrast Matrices
  • Shows similarities and differences between two or more things (people, places, events, concepts, processes etc.)
  • Readers will compare and contrast target concepts listed on the top of the matrix.
series of events
  • Used with a narrative or informational text.
  • Shows a chain of events that may lead to a resolution the conflict in the story or show sequence of events.

First Event

Second Event

Third Event

writing summaries
Writing Summaries
  • Summarizing involves reducing a text to its main points.
  • Good Summarizers write in their own words but are careful to maintain the author's point of view and to stick closely to the sequence of ideas or events as presented in the reading.
using grasp to write a summary
Using Grasp to Write a Summary
  • GRASP= Guided Reading and Summarizing Procedure
  • Follows a Guided reading Activity
methods for note taking
Methods for Note Taking
  • Text Annotations
  • Reading Logs
  • T-Notes
  • Cornell Notes