US Involvement in the Mexican Revolution By: Nicole Garcia Candelario Garcia Jesus Sesma
Prior Political Intervention • Supported liberal president Benito Juárez with his agenda for a democratic Mexican society • President Lincoln sent supplies to help Juárez overthrow emperor Maximilian I of Mexico
Why did the U.S. interfere in the Revolution? • The United States interfered to protect American lives, property and industrial interests in Mexico. • Stability • Political, economic, social
Trends in Political Intervention • U.S. support of people in power • Madero established a liberal democracy and received support from the United States • Carranza favored by the U.S. over radicals • President Wilson feared Mexico's weak status would lend itself to forces hostile to the United States.
Madero Presidency • Initially supported by U.S. • No stability, no support • Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson • Huge enemy • 100,000 U.S. troops stationed @ border • Threat if harm should come to American lives or property • Demands for Madero’s resignation • Britain, Germany, and Spain pressured into making similar demands
Huerta’s reign • Brought to temporary power at U.S. Embassy • Felix Diaz • Turned to British capital • Panama Canal shipping rates accord • Wilson recognition refusal • morality • USS Dolphin incident • Excessive demands: 21 gun salute, harsh punishment of Mexican officer in charge • Veracruz invasion
Carranza’s Presidency • Backed by U.S. prior to presidency • Proposed provisional president • 1915 – de facto recognition by the U.S. • Memorandum for de jure recognition • Control over foreign economic rights • Internal matters: role of the church, elections, etc. • Deterioration due to Mex. attempts to regulate foreign oil companies • Embargo placed on political opponents • Hunt for Pancho Villa
Militaristic Intervention • During the independence movement, the U.S. assisted the insurgents in achieving independence • Monroe Doctrine as justification • U.S.-Mexico relationship deteriorated with the reign of dictators such as Iturbide and Santa Anna the • Twice during the Revolution, the U.S. sent troops into Mexico
Ypiranga incident • German merchant ship carrying illegal arms to Huerta • April 21, 1914 - President Wilson sends troops to Veracruz to stop the ship from docking. • Six day siege on Veracruz against locals and cadets • Intervention by ABC Powers
Niagara Falls Convention • U.S. demands • Elimination of Huerta • Establishment of Prov. Gov. under Carranza • Carranza’s answer… • NO to foreign interference • Wanted U.S. troops out • Troops finally left November 23
Chasing Pancho Villa • Why chase him? • Killed 16 in Columbus, New Mexico • Why did he attack Columbus? • Believed Carranza sold out Mexico to the U.S. • Wanted to see how Carranza would react • What did the U.S. do? • Sent Brigadier General John J. Pershing into Mexico to capture Villa • Mexican Expedition
Effects of the Chase • Was Villa caught? • Not a chance • Why not? • Villa was very familiar with the terrain • Hid in the mountains • Unexpected response by Carranza • How did Carranza react? • Denounced the invasion • Demanded removal of U.S. troops • Prepared for war • Complained to other Latin American countries
Effect in context of Latin America • Hurt image of the United States • Increased Anti-Yankee sentiments • Note sent by Mexico to other Latin American countries: • Denounced U.S. invasion as violating Mexican sovereignty • Claimed invasion was a reaction to Mexico’s elimination of policies favoring foreign capitalists
Economic Intervention • The economy took a great leap during the Porfiriato, • encouragement of construction such as factories, roads, dams, industries, and better farms. This resulted in an influx of foreign capital (principally from the United States) • At the turn of the 20th Century United States owners held about twenty-seven percent of Mexican land. • By 1910 American industrial investment was 45 percent, pushing Presidents Taft and Wilson to intervene in Mexican affairs.
Economic Intervention • Embargos placed on arms and ammunitions for political opponents • Under Huerta’s reign, embargo placed on Carranza • Lifted with understanding that American lives and property would be protected • Under Carranza, embargo placed on Villa and other political opponents • Military goods blocked during Veracruz invasion
Social Intervention • The Mexican government was increasingly nationalistic, and U.S. public and press opinion demanded security • Villa and border protection • U.S. interventions affected the welfare of the approximately 50,000 North Americans living in Mexico even more than those at home. • In the wake of the Veracruz invasion, anti–North American riots broke out in diverse parts of Mexico. • The U.S. government set up stations at New Orleans, Texas City, and San Diego for the handling of North American refugees
Social Intervention • Organizations • Woman’s groups • Religious groups • Red Cross • Why? • Harsh economy and social situation • Humanitarianism
State of the Average Mexicans • Unemployement • Food shortage • Lack of adequate living conditions • Instability • Political, social, economic, religious • **Not just in Mexico**
American Ideology • Mexican Presidents could not maintain order and protect U.S. interests • strategically important production of oil and rubber • Gained power by shady means • Huerta rose to power after murdering his democratically elected predecessor, Francisco Madero • Wilson’s “morality” rhetoric • Recognition policy
Interesting Facts • Actually the Ypiranga was at least one‐half American‐owned. • It had received clearance for its cargo from Wilson himself well in advance of its departure for Mexico. • If U.S. authorities had wanted to stop the ship, it could have been boarded at sea.