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analyse ways English refers to the future • look at how future forms are tackled in teaching activities & resources • prepare teaching presentations
How do we refer to the future in English? • Structures • will + base form • am/is/are going to + base form • present continuous • present simple • will + be + verb-ing (future continuous) • will + have + past participle (future perfect)
Meaning Predictions without any obvious use of current or prior knowledge “Will” future will + base form Decisions at the moment of speaking “Going to” future am/is/are going to + base form Intentions (not necessarily planned) Predictions based on current evidence.
Meaning Present Continuous plans & arrangements (“diary”) Present Simple fixed future events (“timetable”) Future continuous something happening at or around a particular future time something completed by a certain time in the future. Future Perfect
How else do we refer to the future in English? • verbs like want, hope, expect carry a future meaning (when followed by to + verb) • modals of possibility (e.g. might, may, can)
Language Selection • In what order should we teach the grammar points? Consider: • usefulness • frequency • difficulty
The conventional order is… • Beginners/elementary • Present continuous (arrangements): ease of form and concept. • Going to (predictions and intentions): usefulness, frequency and relative ease, • Will (offers, etc): usefulness
The conventional order… • Intermediate: • Will (predictions): usefulness and frequency • if/when ...: usefulness, clauses • Might/may: usefulness, frequency and ease • Upper-intermediate/Advanced: • Future continuous and future perfect: relatively infrequent structures
Materials • Look at the materials. Identify: • the structures that are being presented • the two concepts that are being presented • the context(s) & methods used • ways that the learners’ understanding is checked Bolton, D & Goodey, N. 1999 Trouble with Verbs. Addlestone: DELTA Publishing McGowen, B. & Richardson, V. 2000. Clockwise Pre-Intermediate, Oxford: OUP Soars, J. & Soars, L. 2000. New Headway English Course – Pre-Intermediate. Oxford: OUP
Presentations • Your presentations should include: • Context:a situation that illustrates the item(s) (and contrasts them if appropriate) • Task:an activity to focus the learners on the meaning &/or contrast • Examples:at least three or four examples of the item in the context • Checking:e.g. concept questions and/or timelines
Learner Problems • The moment I get home today I going to play a computer game. Then to eat a sandwich. • Once this lesson has finished I meet my friend because we go to the cinema. After maybe we take a coffee in any café. • Once this lesson has finished I’ll go to my house. I’ll read the newspaper and prepare a nice dinner.
Learner Problems • When I have enough money… I never will have enough money. But if I will, I will visit many countries. • When I’m next on holiday I am spending a good time with my family. • This time next year I will study for my final examination. I think my life won’t be much different.
Learner Problems • In five years time maybe I am going to have a better job. I’ll like to start my own business. • By the time I retire I hope I will save enough money for buy a nice house by sea.
Learner Problems - Pronunciation • The children won’t go to bed. • What’ll you do if it rains? • Where shall we go?