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Why Thermal Management?. References: Sergent, J., and Krum, A., Thermal Management Handbook for Electronic Assemblies, McGraw-Hill, 1998 And

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why thermal management

Why Thermal Management?

References: Sergent, J., and Krum, A., Thermal Management Handbook for Electronic Assemblies, McGraw-Hill, 1998


Yeh, L.T., and Chu, R.C., Thermal Management of Microelectronic Equipment: Heat Transfer Theory, Analysis Methods, and Design Practices, ASME Press, New York, 2002.

size and performance trends
Size and Performance Trends
  • Higher levels of integration in semiconductors
  • More multichip modules
  • Faster speeds, smaller devices
  • Leads to both more heat generation and higher heat densities
types of failures
Types of Failures
  • Soft failures: Properties change, changing performance outside the specs
  • Resistors, capacitors, transistors, leakage currents
  • Example: bipolar transistor gain can change by a factor of 3 over the military temperature range

Sergent and Krum, 1998.

types of failures cont
Types of Failures, cont.
  • Hard failures: component doesn’t work at all
    • Corrosion, chemical reactions, intermetallic compound formation
    • Cracking caused by different coefficient of thermal expansions
    • Breakdown of materials
other common non temp related failures
Other common (non-temp-related) failures
  • Due to mechanical interconnections: poor wire bonds, die bonds, lead frame bonds, etc.; bonds not fully formed or incompatible materials
  • Due to manufacturing defects in active devices: impurities in semiconductors, pinholes in insulating oxide, etc.
  • Due to electrical overstress: overstress during operation or else exposure to electrostatic discharge
  • Due to chemical reactions: corrosion or formation of intermetallic compounds; exacerbated by high temperatures
designer reaction to thermal issues
Designer Reaction to Thermal Issues
  • Two common reactions
    • Underestimate of component temps, resulting in too little cooling, leading to failure
    • Overkill – cooling a system much more than needed, leading to excessive cost and increased size and noise
  • To properly design the system, we need to know the following
    • How and where heat is generated
    • How to estimate the temperature
    • How to remove the heat
  • We’ll focus on these three issues in class!