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Serology Introduction Vocabulary. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- the molecules that carry the body’s genetic information. Plasma - the fluid portion of unclotted blood Erythroctye - a red blood cell Serum - the liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed.

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- the molecules that carry the body’s genetic information.
  • Plasma- the fluid portion of unclotted blood
  • Erythroctye- a red blood cell
  • Serum- the liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed
Antigen- a substance, usually protein, that stimulates the body to produce antibodies against it.
  • Antibody- A protein in the blood serum that destroys or inactivates a specific antigen.
  • Antiserum- blood serum that contains specific antibodies.
Agglutination- the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody.
  • Serology- the study of antigen-antibody reaction.
  • 1901- Karl Landsteiner announced the discovery of the typing of blood.
  • First to recognize that all human blood was not the same
  • Classification system A-B-O system
Blood- refers to a highly complex mixture of cells, enzymes, proteins, and inorganic substances.
  • Fluid portion= plasma
  • Composed primarily of water and account for 55% of blood content
  • RBC(erythrocytes)
  • WBC
  • platelets
Antigens impart specific characteristics to the red blood cells
  • Blood antigens are grouped into systems depending on their relationship to one another
  • Type A blood- each RBC has A antigens on its surface
  • Type B blood- have B antigens
  • Type AB- contain both A and B antigens
  • Type O- have neither A nor B antigens on their cells
  • The presence or absence of A and B antigens on the red blood cells determines a person’s blood type in the A-B-O system.
Another important blood antigen
  • Rh factor (D antigen)- people w/ D antigen are said to be Rh positive; those without are said to be Rh negative.
  • For EVERY antigen there exists a specific antibody.
  • Each antibody symbol contains the prefix anti- followed by the name of the antigen for which it is specific
  • EX: Anti-A is only specific for A antigen; Anti-b for B antigen
review questions
Review Questions
  • Who discovered that blood in distinguishable by its group or type?
  • What is plasma? What percentage of blood content does plasma account for?
  • What is the fourth important antigen other than A, B, and O?