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Weight and Special Diets
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  1. Weight and Special Diets Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  2. “We’re raising our children the way we raise calves for veal - keep them in boxes, feed them too much, and allow them no exercise.” Rich Killingsworth Center for Disease Control and Prevention

  3. Reaching Optimal Weight • The ultimate approach to weight-loss combines mild caloric restriction with regular exercise. • A weight loss of 1 pound per week requires a caloric deficit of 3500 or 500 calories per day. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  4. Reaching Optimal Weight • Reduce caloric intake by 500 calories per day. • Reduce Caloric intake by 250 and increase daily expenditure of energy by 250 calories. • Increase caloric expenditure via physical activity by 500 calories per day. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  5. Creeping Obesity Physical activitydecreases and leads to a decrease In metabolic rate. If energy expendituredrops more than energy intake, weight gain will occur. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  6. Factors Influencing Weight & Fat Control • Heredity / Genetics • Lifestyles • Consumption of excess calories • Lack of regular physical activity • Environment • Easy access to high calorie food makes it harder to eat properly • Modern “conveniences” make activity less likely Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  7. Almost All Diets are Unsuccessful • 50% regain all weight within 2 years • 5-10% keep weight off permanently Why do diets fail? Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  8. START DIET INITIAL MOTIVATION REGAIN INSPIRATION FAIL W / DIET POSITIVE RESULTS BLAME SELF TROUBLE WITH COMPLIANCE Cycle of Dieting Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  9. Diets • Very low calorie diets – Medical Supervision • Low-fat diets • Low Carbohydrate diets – Atkins, Carbohydrate Addicts and Protein Power Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  10. Novelty Diets • Body Solutions • Eat For Your Blood Type • The Da Vinci Diet • The Incredible Ice Cream Diet Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  11. The Atkins Diet • Induction phase: Eat liberally from fats and protein. Limit carbs to 20 grams per day. • Eat absolutely NO fruit, bread, pasta, grains, starchy vegetables. No dairy except for cream cheese, cream or butter. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  12. Atkins con’t • Phase 2: Add back nutrient rich carbs increasing your daily total by 5 grams of carbs. • Phase 3: Pre-maintenance: Add 10 net carbs per day until weight is maintained. • Phase 4: Most people maintain weight-loss @ about 45 -100 grams of carbs per day. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  13. The South Beach Diet • Phase 1: Two weeks of restraint to decrease your unhealthy cravings for sweets, baked goods and starches. • Phase 2: Reintroduce low glycemic carbs. Stay on phase 2 until you reach your goal weight. • Phase 3: Continue to eat low glycemic foods to maintain your weight. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  14. The GI Index • The Glycemic Index--or GI, for short--is a system that ranks foods by how they affect your levels of blood sugar. Low-glycemic index foods (less than 55) produce a gradual rise in a blood sugar that's easy on the body. Foods between 55 and 70 are intermediate-glycemic index foods.   • Foods with high-glycemic index numbers (more than 70) make blood sugar as well as insulin levels spike fast. We now realize that's a health threat. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  15. HCG Diet • Human Chorionic Hormone • This diet combines injection with a severely • restricted diet 500 calories per day. • The idea is that if hormone can convert fat to calories during pregnancy for use for the baby and in the process speed the mother’s metabolism, it can do the same for people who want to lose weight. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  16. The Paleo Diet • Founded on the principles of our ancestors diet “if a caveman didn’t eat it, you shouldn’t either” • Mostly meat, seafood and unlimited consumption of fruits and vegetables. • Eliminate, grains, dairy, legumes and sugars Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  17. Da Vinci Code Diet • Da Vinci Diet: Weight Loss Meets Da Vinci Code • Time Warner books have announced the release of a new diet book - "The Diet Code: Revolutionary Weight-Loss Secrets From Da Vinci and The Golden Ratio." • Mona Lisa on a Diet? • Yes - you read that correctly - a diet book based on Leonardo Da Vinci. Stephen Lanzalotta created what he called the "Da Vinci Diet" in response to the decline in bread consumption brought on by the popularity of the Atkins Diet. The diet consists mostly of Mediterranean foods, including bread, fish, cheese, vegetables, meat, nuts and wine. The author Stephen Lanzalotta is a baker and was apparently forwarded a "six-figure advance" for the book. • The diet is based on the Golden Ratio or Phi, a mathematical value that was used to build the pyramids and has since been found to exist most everywhere in nature. Da Vinci is said to have used the Golden Ratio to proportion the human figures in his paintings which is how it found its way into Dan Brown's hugely popular novel Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  18. Prescription Weight Control Pills • . Tenuate - decreases appetite • Belviq _ Decreases appetitie • Adipex (phentermine) decreases appetitie • Orlistat (Alli) - decreases absorbtion of fat • Xenical • Phnetermine and extended release topiramate – decreases appetitie Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  19. Healthy Eating Patterns • Low “glycemic load” diets may be a more sensible alternative to low-carbohydrate diets. • Artificial sweeteners and fat substitutes may help but cannot be considered a “sure cure” for body fat problems. • Avoid anything with ephedra. • Restrict “empty” calories. • Learn the difference between craving and hunger. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  20. Regular Activity Patterns Info on exercise and weight • Benefits of Exercise for Weight Control • Burns calories • Maintains LBM • Increases metabolism • Promotes greater fat loss • Suppresses appetite • What type of exercise is best? • Aerobic exercise • Strength or muscle endurance exercise Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  21. Weight Loss Calculations 1 pound of fat = 3500 calories Maximum weight loss should be no more than 1-2 pounds per week: 500 calories/day x 7 days/week = 3500 calories/week (1 pound) 1000 calories/day x 7 days/week = 7000 calories/week (2 pounds) Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  22. Behavior Change Principles for Weight Control • Set realistic behavioral goals • Moderation in behavior • Consistency in behavior • Social support Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

  23. Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in 20 Years? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Obesity Education Initiative

  24. BAGEL 20 Years Ago Today 140 calories 3-inch diameter How many calories are in this bagel?

  25. BAGEL 20 Years Ago Today 140 calories 3-inch diameter 350 calories 6-inch diameter Calorie Difference: 210 calories

  26. Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to rake leaves in order to burn the extra 210 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person

  27. Calories In = Calories Out If you rake the leaves for 50 minutes you will burn the extra 210 calories.* *Based on 130-pound person

  28. CHEESEBURGER Today 20 Years Ago 333 calories How many calories are in today’s cheeseburger?

  29. CHEESEBURGER Today 20 Years Ago 333 calories 590 calories Calorie Difference: 257 calories

  30. Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to lift weights in order to burn the extra 257 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person

  31. Calories In = Calories Out If you lift weights for 1 hour and 30 minutes,you will burn approximately 257 calories.* *Based on 130-pound person

  32. SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS 20 Years Ago Today 500 calories 1 cup spaghetti with sauce and 3 small meatballs How many calories do you think are in today's portion of spaghetti and meatballs?

  33. SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS 20 Years Ago Today 500 calories 1 cup spaghetti with sauce and 3 small meatballs 1,025 calories 2 cups of pasta with sauce and 3 large meatballs Calorie Difference: 525 calories

  34. Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to houseclean in order to burn the extra 525 calories?* *Based on 130-pound person

  35. Calories In = Calories Out If you houseclean for 2 hours and 35 minutes, you will burn approximately 525 calories.* *Based on 130-pound person

  36. FRENCH FRIES 20 Years Ago Today 210 Calories 2.4 ounces How many calories are in today’s portion of fries?

  37. FRENCH FRIES 20 Years Ago Today 210 Calories 2.4 ounces 610 Calories 6.9 ounces Calorie Difference: 400 Calories

  38. Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to walk leisurely in order to burn those extra 400 calories?* *Based on 160-pound person

  39. Calories In = Calories Out If you walk leisurely for 1 hour and 10 minutesyou will burn approximately 400 calories.* *Based on 160-pound person

  40. SODA 20 Years Ago Today 85 Calories 6.5 ounces How many calories are in today’s portion?

  41. SODA 20 Years Ago Today 85 Calories 6.5 ounces 250 Calories 20 ounces Calorie Difference: 165 Calories

  42. Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to work in the garden to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 160-pound person

  43. Calories In = Calories Out If you work in the garden for 35 minutes, you will burn approximately 165 calories.* *Based on 160-pound person

  44. TURKEY SANDWICH 20 Years Ago Today 320 calories How many calories are in today’s turkey sandwich?

  45. TURKEY SANDWICH 20 Years Ago Today 320 calories 820 calories Calorie Difference: 500 calories

  46. Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act Calories In = Calories Out How long will you have to ride a bike in order to burn those extra calories?* *Based on 160-pound person

  47. Calories In = Calories Out If you ride a bike for 1 hour and 25 minutes,you will burn approximately 500 calories.* *Based on 160-pound person

  48. End of Portion Distortion Demo Return to Presentation