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LESSON ONE. AMINISTRATION COMPONENTS OF FITNESS AEROBIC FITNESS VO2 MAX ENERGY SYSTEMS ONSET OF BLOOD LACTIC ACID (OBLA). COMPONENTS OF FITNESS. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE MUSCULAR STRENGTH MUSCULAR ENDURANCE BODY COMPOSITION FLEXIBILITY. AEROBIC ACTIVITY. USES LARGE MUSCLE GROUPS

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LESSON ONE


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lesson one
LESSON ONE
  • AMINISTRATION
  • COMPONENTS OF FITNESS
  • AEROBIC FITNESS
  • VO2 MAX
  • ENERGY SYSTEMS
  • ONSET OF BLOOD LACTIC ACID (OBLA)
components of fitness
COMPONENTS OF FITNESS
  • CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE
  • MUSCULAR STRENGTH
  • MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
  • BODY COMPOSITION
  • FLEXIBILITY
aerobic activity
AEROBIC ACTIVITY
  • USES LARGE MUSCLE GROUPS
  • RHYTHMIC
  • CONTINUOUS/INTERVAL
  • RAISES HR TO TRAINING LEVEL
  • GREATER THAN 20 MINUTES
oxygen consumption
OXYGEN CONSUMPTION

VO2 MAX: THE MAX AMOUNT OF O2 THAT THE BODY IS ABLE TO UTILIZE PER MINUTE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • VO2 MAX IS CONSIDERED THE SINGLE, BEST INDICATOR OF A PERSONS LEVEL OF AEROBIC FITNESS
  • VO2 MAX OCCURS WHERE A FURTHER INCREASE IN WORK IS NOT ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADDITIONAL INCREASE IN O2 CONSUMPTION
stroke volume
STROKE VOLUME

sv

  • VOLUME OF BLOOD PUMPED PER BEAT
cardiac output
CARDIAC OUTPUT
  • VOLUME OF BLOOD PUMPED PER MINUTE

CO = HR X SV

fick principle
FICK PRINCIPLE
  • THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN USED IS A FUNCTION OF HOW MUCH BLOOD IS SENT TO MUSCLE AND HOW MUCH O2 IS IN THE BLOOD

(A-V) O2 DIFFERENCE

FICK EQUATION:

VO2 = CARDIAC X (A-V) 02

OUTPUT DIFFERENCE

gas transport and exchange
GAS TRANSPORTAND EXCHANGE

DIFFUSION

  • OXYGEN
  • HEMOGLOBIN
  • CARBON DIOXIDE
  • CARBON MONOXIDE
changes in oxygen transport capacity
CHANGES IN OXYGEN TRANSPORT CAPACITY

CAUSES:

  • LOSS OF BLOOD
  • LACK OF OXYGEN IN AIR
  • BLOCKADE OF Hb
  • ANEMIA
sources of energy
SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • CARBOHYDRATE
  • FAT
  • PROTEIN

ATP

ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE

energy systems
ENERGY SYSTEMS
  • PHOSPHAGEN (ATP + CP)
  • ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS
  • AEROBIC RESPIRATION
    • AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS
    • BETA OXIDATION
atp cp
ATP + CP
  • CREATINE PHOSPHATE (CP): HIGH ENERGY COMPOUND
  • RAPID ENERGY PRODUCTION
  • OCCURS WITHOUT OXYGEN
  • IMMEDIATE ENERGY RESERVE
  • 30 SECONDS HIGH INTENSITY
anaerobic glycolysis
ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS
  • SPLITTING OF GLUCOSE WITHOUT OXYGEN
  • BRIDGES THE GAP - BEGINNING OF EXERCISE
  • PRODUCES HIGH LACTIC ACID CONCENTRATIONS
  • 2-3 MINUTES OF INTENSE EXERCISE
aerobic glycolysis
AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS
  • BEGINS WITH GLUCOSE
  • FORMS PYRUVIC ACID
  • IN THE PRESENCE OF O2 PYRUVIC ACID IS METABOLIZED INTO CO2 AND H2O
  • KREBS CYCLE - CHEMICAL BREAKDOWN OF PYRUVIC ACID
beta oxidation
BETA OXIDATION
  • FAT METABOLISM
  • REQUIRES OXYGEN
  • LONG DURATION EXERCISE
  • LOWER INTENSITY
substrate utilization
SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION

DEPENDENT ON 3 FACTORS:

  • INTENSITY/DURATION
  • STATE OF TRAINING
  • DIET
o b l a
O.B.L.A
  • LACTIC ACID ACCUMULATION
  • EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF MAXIMAL O2 UPTAKE
  • NORMALLY OCCURS BETWEEN 55% AND 65% OF VO2 MAX
  • OCCURS AT 80% VO2 MAX IN HIGHLY TRAINED ATHLETES
removal of lactic acid
REMOVAL OF LACTIC ACID
  • OXIDATION TO CO2 AND H2O
  • LOSS IN URINE AND SWEAT
  • CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE OR GYCLOGEN
obla facts
OBLA “FACTS”
  • INTENSITY DEPENDENT
  • CAN BE TRAINED
  • CAN BE POSTPONED
lesson two
LESSON TWO
  • HEART RATE RESPONSE
  • HEART RATE MONITORS
  • MAX HEART RATE/RECOVERY RUN
heart rate response
HEART RATE RESPONSE
  • HEART RATE AND OXYGEN UPTAKE HAVE A LINEAR RELATIONSHIP
  • HEART RATE IS CONSIDERED A GOOD WAY TO ESTIMATE EXERCISE INTENSITY.
determining training heart rate
DETERMINING TRAINING HEART RATE
  • ESTIMATE MAXIMUM HR (MHR)

220 - AGE = MHR

  • DETERMINE HEART RATE RESERVE

HRR = MHR - RESTING HEART RATE

  • TRAINING HEART RATE (THR)

(____% X HRR) + RHR = THR

rate of perceived exertion
RATE OF PERCEIVED EXERTION

6

7 VERY VERY LIGHT

8

9 VERY LIGHT

10

11 LIGHT

12

13 SOMEWHAT HEAVY

14

15 HEAVY

16

17 VERY HEAVY

18

19 VERY VERY HEAVY

20

lesson three
LESSON THREE
  • FACTORS AFFECTING AEROBIC EXERCISE
  • SHORT TERM RESPONSES
  • LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS
factors affecting aerobic exercise
FACTORS AFFECTING AEROBIC EXERCISE
  • MODE OF EXERCISE
  • HEREDITY
  • POTENTIAL FOR FITNESS
  • GENDER
  • AGE
  • BODY COMP0SITION
  • LEVEL OF ACTIVITY
exercise prescription fitt principle
EXERCISE PRESCRIPTIONFITT PRINCIPLE

FREQUENCY 3 - 5 TIMES PER WEEK

INTENSITY 60%-90% OF MHR

12-14 RPE SCALE

50%-80% VO2 MAX

TIME 20-30 MINUTES

TYPE LARGE MUSCLE GROUPS

RHYTHMIC

CONTINUOUS

short term responses to aerobic exercise
SHORT TERM RESPONSES TO AEROBIC EXERCISE
  • INCREASE IN PULMONARY VENTILATION (RESPIRATION)
  • INCREASE IN HEART RATE
  • INCREASE IN STROKE VOLUME
  • INCREASE IN CARDIAC OUTPUT
  • INCREASE IN MUSCLE TEMPERATURE
  • INCREASE IN BLOOD FLOW TO HEART
long term adaptations to aerobic exercise
LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS TO AEROBIC EXERCISE
  • DECREASE IN RHR
  • LOWER HR AT A GIVEN WORKLOAD
  • DECREASE IN HR RECOVERY TIME
  • INCREASE NUMBER AND SIZE OF FUNCTIONAL CAPILLARIES
  • INCREASE IN CARDIAC OUTPUT
  • INCREASE IN STROKE VOLUME
  • INCREASE IN THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF MITACHONDRIA
  • INCREASE IN THE ABILITY TO MOBILIZE AND UTILIZE FAT
  • DECREASE IN BLOOD LIPIDS
  • DECREASE IN RESTING BLOOD PRESSURE
long term adaptations to aerobic exercise1
LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS TO AEROBIC EXERCISE

MUSCULOSKELATAL BENEFITS

  • INCREASED MUSCULAR STRENGTH
  • INCREASED CAPILLARY DENSITY IN MUSCLE
  • STRENGTHENING OF TENDONS, LIGAMENTS, AND JOINTS
  • COUNTERACTS OSTEOPOROSIS

MISCELLANEOUS BENEFITS

  • ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO HEAT
  • RELEASE OF ENDORPHINES “RUNNERS HIGH”
lesson four
LESSON FOUR
  • AEROBIC FITNESS ASSESSMENT
  • EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION
aerobic fitness assessment
AEROBIC FITNESS ASSESSMENT

VO2 MAX: THE MAX AMOUNT OF O2 THAT THE BODY IS ABLE TO UTILIZE PER MINUTE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • VO2 MAX IS CONSIDERED THE SINGLE, BEST INDICATOR OF A PERSONS LEVEL OF AEROBIC FITNESS
  • VO2 MAX OCCURS WHERE A FURTHER INCREASE IN WORK IS NOT ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADDITIONAL INCREASE IN O2 CONSUMPTION
expressing vo2
EXPRESSING VO2
  • ABSOLUTE VO2/VO2 MAX:

L/min

  • RELATIVE VO2/VO2 MAX:

ml O2/Kg/min

assessing vo2 max
ASSESSING VO2 MAX

MAXIMAL TEST: REQUIRES A PERSON TO EXERCISE TO EXHAUSTION

SUBMAXIMAL TEST:MEASURES AN INDIVIDUALS RESPONSE AT SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE.

  • VO2 MAX IS PREDICTED FROM EXERCISE HEART RATE FOR THE GIVEN SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE
assessing vo2 max1
ASSESSING VO2 MAX
  • LAB
  • FIELD
  • MAX
  • SUBMAX
benefits of testing
BENEFITS OF TESTING
  • ASSESSES STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
  • PROVIDES BASELINE DATA
  • PROVIDES FEEDBACK
  • PROVIDES HEALTH ASSESSMENT
  • PROVIDES UNDERSTANDING
testing will not
TESTING WILL NOT
  • PREDICT FUTURE “GOLD MEDALISTS”
  • SIMULATE ACTUAL PHYSICAL DEMANDS OF SOME SPORTS
2 mile run test
2 MILE RUN TEST

MEN:

VO2MAX = 99.7 - (3.35 X TIME)

WOMEN:

VO2MAX = 72.9 - (1.77 X TIME)

principles of exercise
PRINCIPLES OF EXERCISE
  • OVERLOAD
  • PROGRESSION
  • RECOVERY
  • SPECIFICITY
  • REGULARITY
  • VARIETY
  • BALANCE
3 phases of an aerobic exercise program
3 PHASES OF AN AEROBIC EXERCISE PROGRAM
  • PREPARATORY PHASE
  • USUALLY LASTS 4-6 WEEKS
  • CONDITIONING PHASE
  • USUALLY LASTS 12-20 WEEKS
  • INTENSITY 70 - 80 HRR
  • DURATION/FREQUENCY INCREASED BY 10% PER WEEK
  • MAINTENANCE PHASE
  • BEGINS 6 MONTHS AFTER STARTING PROGRAM
  • CONTINUES FOR A LIFETIME
physiological effects of a warm up
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A WARM UP
  • INCREASE IN BODY TEMPERATURE
  • INCREASE IN BLOOD FLOW TO MUSCLES AND HEART
  • DECREASED MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND REFLEX TIME
  • DECREASES CHEMICAL REACTION TIME
physiological effects of a cool down
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A COOL DOWN
  • DECREASED LACTIC ACID LEVELS
  • PREVENTS BLOOD POOLING
  • STRETCHING WARM MUSCLES IMPROVES FLEXIBILITY
  • DECREASED CHANCES OF CARDIAC IRREGULARITIES
exercise adherence
EXERCISE ADHERENCE
  • FUN
  • CROSS-TRAINING
  • REGULARITY
  • PROPER EQUIPMENT
  • TRAINING PARTNER
  • SET GOALS
  • AVOID OVERTRAINING
  • KEEP A LOG
  • ASSESSMENTS
  • MONITOR HEALTH
lesson five
LESSON FIVE
  • FATIGUE
  • DELAYED ONSET OF MUSCLE SORENESS (DOMS)
  • CONTRAINDICATIONS
  • ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • STADIUM STAIR CLIMBING
mechanisms of fatigue
MECHANISMS OF FATIGUE

POSSIBLE CAUSES:

  • DECREASED ATP SUPPLY
  • INCREASE IN LACTIC ACID
  • DEHYDRATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • HYPERTHERMIA
  • DEPLETION OF GLYCOGEN
  • ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE
possible causes of muscle soreness
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF MUSCLE SORENESS
  • ACUTE:LACK OF BLOOD FLOW (O2) AND GENERAL FATIGUE OF MUSCLES
  • DELAYED ONSET OF MUSCLE SORENESS (D.O.M.S.):
  • 12 HOURS AFTER EXERCISE
  • MAY LAST 2-4 DAYS
  • TEARS TO MUSCLE AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  • INCREASE FLUID RETENTION
  • MUSCLE SPASMS
  • NOT A SPRAIN OR INJURY
  • PREVENTION: WARM UP, START SLOW, COOL DOWN PROPERLY
contraindications of exercise
CONTRAINDICATIONS OF EXERCISE
  • RECENT HEART ATTACK
  • UNSTABLE ANGINA PECTORIS
  • ABNORMAL HEART ACTIVITY
  • PAIN IN CHEST, ARMS FOLLOWING ACTIVITY
  • DIZZINESS, LIGHT HEADINESS
  • LACK OF COORDINATION, CONFUSION, COLD SWEATING
  • ILLNESS, PARTICULARLY VIRAL INFECTIONS
symptoms of overtraining
SYMPTOMS OF OVERTRAINING
  • MUSCLE SORENESS
  • HEADACHES, SORE THROAT, MILD COLD
  • IRRITABILITY
  • INSOMNIA
  • LACK OF INTEREST IN DAILY ACTIVITIES
  • LOSS OF APPETITE
  • SUDDEN DROP IN WEIGHT
  • CONSTIPATION OR DIARRHEA
  • SKIN ERUPTIONS
  • ABNORMALLY HIGH RHR
risk factors
RISK FACTORS
  • AGE
  • HEREDITY
  • GENDER
  • SMOKING
  • OBESITY
  • LACK OF EXERCISE
  • HIGH CHOLESTEROL
  • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
  • ABNORMAL EKG
  • STRESS
  • DIABETES
exercising in the cold
EXERCISING IN THE COLD
  • DRESS IN LAYERS
  • AVOID PROFUSE SWEATING
  • AVOID WIND CHILL FACTOR
  • DRINK PLENTY OF WATER

____________________________

HYPOTHERMIA

FROSTBITE

major forms of heat illness
MAJOR FORMS OF HEAT ILLNESS
  • HEAT CRAMPS: MUSCLE PAIN AND SPASM
  • HEAT EXHAUSTION: WEAK, RAPID PULSE, LOW BLOOD PRESSURE, HEADACHE, AND DIZZINESS
  • HEAT STROKE: CEASATION OF SWEATING, DRY, HOT SKIN AND VERY HIGH BODY TEMPERATURE - THE MOST SERIOUS AND COMPLEX HEAT PROBLEM
factors to modify heat tolerance
FACTORS TO MODIFY HEAT TOLERANCE
  • GRADUALLY ACCLIMATIZE
  • DRINK PLENTY OF WATER BEFORE DURING AND AFTER
  • ALLOW FOR EVAPORATION - LIMITED IN HUMID WEATHER
  • REPLACE ELECTOROLYTES LOST THROUGH SWEATING
  • AVOID EXERCISE DURING HOTTEST TIME OF DAY
effects of dehydration
EFFECTS OF DEHYDRATION
  • REDUCED CIRCULATORY CAPACITY
  • REDUCED MAX CARDIAC OUTPUT
  • ALTERED AUTONOMIC NERVOUS CONTROL OF SWEAT GLANDS
  • REDUCED WORK CAPACITY
fluid replacement with carbohydrate
FLUID REPLACEMENT WITH CARBOHYDRATE
  • INCREASE IN BLOOD GLUCOSE
  • INCREASE IN GLUCOSE UTILIZATION BY MUSCLE
  • INCREASE IN ENDURANCE
benefits of fluid repacement
BENEFITS OF FLUID REPACEMENT
  • IMPROVED REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE
  • INCREASED SWEAT RATE
  • DECREASED BODY CORE TEMP
  • INCREASED PLASMA VOLUME
  • INCREASED STROKE VOLUME
  • INCREASED PERFORMANCE
lesson six
LESSON SIX
  • RUNNING BASICS
  • DIFFERENT RUNNING MODALITIES/TRAINING METHODS
  • INTERVAL RUNNING
running modalities and training methods
RUNNING MODALITIESANDTRAINING METHODS
  • LONG SLOW DISTANCE
  • FARTLEK “SPEED PLAY”
  • FAST, CONTINUOUS
  • INDIAN RUNS
  • INTERVALS
interval training
INTERVAL TRAINING

DEFINITION:SERIES OF REPEATED BOUTS OF EXERCISE ALTERNATED WITH PERIODS OF RELIEF

VARIABLES

(TO EMPHASIZE A PARTICULAR ENERGY SYSTEM)

  • RATE AND DISTANCE OF WORK (BASED ON PERFORMANCE TIME)
  • NUMBER OF REPETITIONS
  • RELIEF TIME BETWEEN INTERVALS
  • FREQUENCY OF TRAINING PER WEEK
benefits of interval training
BENEFITS OF INTERVAL TRAINING
  • ALLOWS FOR QUALITY, HIGH INTENSITY WORK
  • APPLIES PRINCIPLE OF SPECIFICITY
  • CAN STRESS ALL ENERGY SYSTEMS
  • TRAINS NERVOUS SYSTEM
formula for determining interval pace 4 8 x 400m
FORMULA FOR DETERMINING INTERVAL PACE (4 -8 X 400M)
  • MILE TIME = 8:00 MINUTE
  • 400 METER = 2:00 MINUTE
  • SUBTRACT 1-4 SECONDS :

= 1:56-1:59

lesson 14
LESSON 14
  • NUTRITION BASICS
substrate
SUBSTRATE
  • CARBOHYDRATES
  • FATS
  • PROTEINS
nutrition
NUTRITION
  • PROTEIN: 12% OF DAILY CALORIC INTAKE
  • FAT: NOT TO EXCEED 30% OF DAILY CALORIC INTAKE
  • CARBOHYDRATE: AT LEAST 50%-60%, CONSIDER 70%-75% OF DAILY CALORIC INTAKE
  • MAJOR SOURCE OF ENERGY
  • SPARES BREAKDOWN OF PROTEIN
  • METABOLIC PRIMER FOR FAT
  • IMPORTANT FOR ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
  • RELEASED WITHIN MUSCLE 3 TIMES AS FAST AS FAT
general guidelines for a healthful diet
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHFUL DIET
  • EAT A VARIETY OF FOODS
  • AVOID FATS AND CHOLESTEROL
  • EAT FOODS HIGH IN STARCH AND FIBER
  • AVOID EXCESSIVE SUGAR AND SODIUM
  • MAINTAIN ADEQUATE CALCIUM INTAKE
  • MAINTAIN RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT
  • USE ALCOHOL IN MODERATION
  • DRINK PLENTY OF WATER