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Professor John Young National Clinical Director for Integration & the Frail Elderly. nhs Managers.net. Integration and Older People with Frailty. John Young . Dept. Elderly Care Medicine Bradford Hospitals Trust & University of Leeds

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    1. Professor John Young National Clinical Director for Integration & the Frail Elderly nhsManagers.net

    2. Integration and Older People with Frailty John Young Dept. Elderly Care Medicine Bradford Hospitals Trust & University of Leeds National Clinical Director for Integration & Frail Elderly, NHS England

    3. Integration and Older People with Frailty • What’s the problem? • How does integration fit in? • What’s the evidence? • What’s the plan?

    4. PERFECT STORM: • Increasingly clumsy health & social care system • Changing population: simple needs highly complex (frailty) • The Austerity years Health & Social Care System needs to be fit for purpose

    5. By 2030, the number of people over 80 will have doubled… Over the last decade, some 40% of the increase in emergency admissions is from over 65s The rate of emergency readmissions has also grown faster for older people In 2008, there were 1.9 million people with more than one long term condition. By 2026, 3 million people will have three long term conditions Population estimates for frailty: 65-69  = 4% 70-74 = 7% 75-79 = 9% 80-84 = 16% Over 85 = 26%

    6. Multimorbidity in Scotland (Scottish School of Primary Care Barnett et al Lancet May 2012) • The majority of over-65s have 2 or more conditions, and the majority of over-75s have 3 or more conditions • More people have 2 or more conditions than only have 1

    7. Frailty is loss of physiological reserve Frailty syndromes present in crisis • Hyper-acute Frailty syndromes: • Immobility • Falls • Delirium • Fluctuating disability • Incontinence “Minor illness” eg UTI (Clegg, Young, Rockwood Lancet 2013)

    8. STRUCTURAL, RELATIONAL & CULTURAL FRAGMENTATION(SILOS OF PROVISION) HOSPITALS PRIMARY CARE SOCIAL CARE (LG funded & means tested) COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES COMMUNITY NURSING AMBULANCE SERVICES NURSING & CARE HOMES MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES PHARMACY VOLUNTARY SECTOR HOSPITAL-AT-HOME; “VIRTUAL WARDS; COMMUNITY HOSPITALS; HOME THERAPY TEAMS; COMMUNITY MATRONS; SPECIALIST NURSES; CARE HOME REHAB; PALLIATIVE CARE; “ENABLEMENT” SERVICES, etc, etc…

    9. Does anybody want my patient? Rapid Access Clinic = “Too ill” Care home rehab = “Not ill enough” Com hosp = “We’re full till Monday” HaH = “You mean she’s got dementia!” L.A. Enablement Service = “Send her along!”

    10. We have a fundamental whole system failure The Wrong Type of System: “Systems designed to treat occasional episodes of care for normally healthy younger people are being used to deliver care for people who have multiple, complex and long term conditions. The result is often that they are passed from silo to silo without the system having ability to co-ordinate different providers” RtHon Stephen Dorrell MP 2011 The Wrong Type of Patients: “If we design services for people with one thing wrong at once but people with many things wrong turn up, the fault lies not with the users but with the service, yet all too often these patients are labelled as inappropriate and presented as a problem” Prof Rockwood 2005

    11. Integration and Older People with Frailty • What’s the problem? • How does integration fit in? • What’s the evidence? • What’s the plan?

    12. NATIONAL VOICES (www.nationalvoices.org.uk) A national coalition of health and social care charities in England Voice of patients, service users, carers, their familiesOver 150 members organisations Connects with the experiences of millions of people “We are sick of falling through gaps. We are tired of organisational barriers and boundaries that delay or prevent access to care. We do not accept being discharged from a service into a void. We want services to be seamless and care to be continuous” 12

    13. NATIONAL VOICES: What do we mean by “integration”?

    14. Integration and Older People with Frailty • What’s the problem? • How does integration fit in? • What’s the evidence? • What’s the plan?

    15. Preventing admission of older people to hospital(D’Souza & Guptha BMJ 2013) • Mostly based on experimental RCTs • Case management • Community matrons • Integrated community teams • Targeted, specialist services Complete failure: Doesn’t work And yet………………

    16. Torbay and S. Devon Health Care Trust • Acclaimed service integration work: • Bed use reduced 33% • Emergency bed use >85y reduced 32% • Delayed transfers of care “negligible” • LTC use reduced • Home care use increased “I have seen the future. It is Torbay” David Nicholson NHS Chief Executive

    17. Torbay and S. Devon Health Care Trust • Work started 2004 • Pilot work: joint care manager and joint health and • social care team • Narrative: “Mrs Smith” (see BMJ March 2012) • Performance metrics: early successes • Staff: better experience • Service users: better experience

    18. Preventing admission of older people to hospital(D’Souza & Guptha BMJ 2013) • Mostly based on experimental RCTs • Case management • Community matrons • Integrated community teams • Targeted, specialist services • Experimental control of one (albeit complex) thing • Short time-horizon of experimenters

    19. WHOLE SYSTEMS THINKING

    20. National Evaluation of (16) Integrated Care Pilots RAND Europe; Ernst &Young 2012 Identified several “integrating activities” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecanqQmJq-0 Can you identify some “integrating activities” from this video?

    21. National Evaluation of (16) Integrated Care Pilots RAND Europe; Ernst &Young 2012 • “Integrating activities” included: • Narrative/collective vision; strong leadership • Developing relationships & trust • Process improvements: care planning; new roles; MDT working • Locality based teams & co-location • Shared IT/ care records • Governance and performance management • Financial systems and incentives What did they find?

    22. National Evaluation of (16) Integrated Care Pilots RAND Europe; Ernst &Young 2012 Headline findings: • Patient experience unchanged • Unexpected increase in acute admissions • Unexpected decrease in elective care • Changes more complex & took longer • Integration work not complete or mature • Mostly horizontal (not vertical) integration

    23. What are characteristics of best integrated systems (1)? Integrated Care: What are the characteristics of best integrated systems (1)? Strong clinical leadership across sectors and disciplines, e.g. Grouphealth (US), Jonkoping (Sweden) Use of data-driven processes to guide quality improvement, e.g. Intermountain (US), Virginia Mason (US), CCNC (US), GRIPA (US) Multi-disciplinary team around primary care practitioners, e.g. Kaiser (US), Dudley (UK), Torbay (UK), CCNC (US) Strong investment in preventative services to improve self-management, e.g. Kaiser (US), Leeds (UK), On Lok (US) Use of risk stratification and proactive assessment/ care planning, e.g. Tri-boroughs (UK), Kent (UK), North Lanarkshire (UK), Grouphealth (US) 23

    24. What are characteristics of best integrated systems (2)? Integrated Care: What are the characteristics of best integrated systems (2)? During crisis episodes, care co-ordination starts in A&E, including social care, right through to discharge e.g. Kaiser (US), Dudley (UK) Seamless transfer between acute and community setting, backed up by continuous dialogue between GP & hospital consultant, e.g. RHZ (Netherlands), VHA (US) Single electronic care record with patient access/interaction, e.g. RHZ (Netherlands), Kaiser (US) Integration between physical and mental health services, with same access standards, e.g. United (US), Beacon (US) Same incentives across system – outcomes, process, user experience, VFM; e.g. Intermountain (US) 24

    25. Kings Fund Integrated Care 2011 • “Organisational integration appears to be neither necessary nor sufficient to deliver the benefits of integrated care.” • “No single ‘best practice’ model of integrated care exists. What matters most is clinical and service-level integration that focuses on how care can be better provided around the needs of individuals, especially where this care is being given by a number of different professionals and organisations Moreover, integrated care is not needed for all service users or all forms of care but must be targeted at those who stand to benefit most.”

    26. Integration and Older People with Frailty • What’s the problem? • How does integration fit in? • What’s the evidence? • What’s the plan(s)?

    27. The National Collaboration for IntegrationNational Partners: a major commitment 25 February 2013

    28. Integrated Care and Support: Our Shared Commitment • Launched by MS(CS)14 May 2013 • Sets out policy background • National Voices narrative prioritised • Call for ‘pioneers’ • Sense of urgency within the system to integrate • Information sharing • Accelerated learning across the system • National support to reduce/ eliminate barriers • No national blueprint – local innovation 28

    29. Integration and Older People with Frailty:Policy and Plans • Vulnerable Older People Plan • (Urgent care, primary care, integration) • Urgent and Emergency Care Review • Integrated Care Pioneers • “Year of Care” Pilots • Integration Transformation Fund (£3.8 billion) • Focus is on: • Whole systems • Older people with multiple co-morbidities/frailty