LECTURE 3. RESEARCH PROCEDURES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING. THE STEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH. Identifying a Research Problem Mengidentifikasi Masalah Penelitian Reviewing the Literature Menelaah Literatur / Pustaka
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ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
MerumuskanTujuandanPertanyaanPenelitianatauHipotesis (jikaada) Penelitian
A theory is an organized body of concepts, generalizations, and principles that can be subjected to investigation. There are many educationally relevant theories in ELT, such as theories of EFL learning and behavior from which ELT problems can be drawn. Since a theory is a theory and not a body of facts, it is subjected to rigorous scientific investigation for confirming or disconfirming some aspect of the theory and also for suggesting additional studies that need to be done.
Professional experiences can be a rich source of ELT research problems. For example, along his teaching experience, a teacher is assumed to be curious to know what happens in his classroom, why things are not going well, what is going wrong, what works well and what does not work, the classroom climate, the preferred group work patterns, the students’ learning styles, and who likes what and who likes whom, and many others. He is assumed to have a hunch concerning a better way of conducting his class.
Research reports in ELT generally recommend further researches. This residue can be taken by the researcher for further research investigation. The researcher can enrich himself by reading related literature: articles in journals, encyclopedia, thesis, and dissertation to make the problem to be investigated much clearer.
In the forum of discussions, seminars, and symposiums on ELT, participants might view one particular thing in many different points of views. This will very often trigger much more challenging questions that need to be answered in a scientific way. One who wants to do research may pick up one of the many questions arises in the ELT forum to investigate.
Another source of ELT research problem is intuition and imagination. By intuition, a research problem may come instantaneously in a researcher’s mind without his conscious use of reasoning. By imagination, a research problem may be displayed in a researcher’s mind as a result of his mind journey in the areas of his expertise and of particular interest.
Often a research problem is identified on an unplanned occasion. For example, on a trip to countryside, an EFL teacher came across several students who were inattentive to participate in English class while other students were seriously working on their classroom task. By this casual observation, the EFL teacher was tempted to answer the question of why all these happen.
Statements of the authority (power or expertise) can be the source of research problems. For example, the statement of some of the Indonesian foreign language teaching and learning specialists stating that the teaching of foreign language to young learners endangers Indonesian unifying force-Bahasa Indonesia. On the other hand, foreign language teaching and learning theory advocates that if one wants to be proficient in a foreign language, one must learn it from the early age.
EFL Distance Learning
Lack of students in EFL distance education classes
To study why students do not attend EFL distance education classes at community college
Does the use of Web site technology in the classroom deter students from enrolling in a n EFL distance education class