CHLORAMINE Chlorine + Ammonia in your drinking water Presented by The Chloramine Information Center www.chloramineinfocenter.net. A highly toxic and unnecessary treatment alternative. AMMONIA. CHLORINE. Chloraminated Tap Water. VA Beach tap water. Chlorine
CHLORAMINEChlorine + Ammoniain your drinking waterPresented byThe Chloramine Information Centerwww.chloramineinfocenter.net
A highly toxic and unnecessarytreatment alternative AMMONIA CHLORINE
Chloraminated Tap Water VA Beach tap water
Chlorine • Most effective disinfectant for drinking water • Effectively kills e-coli, rotaviruses and polio 1 • Successfully used nation-wide over 100 years • Dissipates quickly - sparing environment and minimally affecting people So, WhyChloramine?
Organic Material + Chlorine = Disinfection Raw WaterByproducts (DBP) DBPs of Chlorine Trihalomethanes (TTHM) Haloacetic Acids (HAA)
1970’s EPA studies TTHMs and HAAs “may” cause bladder cancer (quality of these studies has been challenged by more recent science) RESULT TTHMs and HAAs were regulated 80 ppb and 60 ppb respectively (Stage 1 )
Rivanna Water & Sewer Authority Charlottesville, VA • DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS • (TTHMs) Trihalomethanes 35.6 ppb 22 - 58ppb • (HAAs) Haloacetic Acid 40.5 ppb 19 - 42 ppb • Free Residual Chlorine 1.48 ppm 0.2 - 1.9 ppm RWSA’s THMs ( regulated at 80 ppb) and HAAs (regulated at 60 ppb) are well within regulated limit of Stage 2 regs. No need to chloraminate this system, yet it is being scheduled. WHY ?
Need to reduce TTHMs and HAAs Options offered by EPA: Better filtration of organics before disinfection Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) UV Light Chlorine Dioxide Chloramine Cheapest alternative = chloramine
CHLORAMINE ADVANTAGES: • Ammonia binds to chlorine – maintains residual in longer lines – no booster needed - reduces reactivity to organic material • thereby reducing formation of regulated TTHMs and HAAs • HOWEVER………
CHLORAMINE • DISADVANTAGES: • Adverse SHORT TERM health effects • Adverse LONG TERM health effects • LEAST EFFECTIVE BIOCIDE • Fatal to aquatic life and watersheds • Corrodes pipes and fixtures/leaches lead • Homeland Security risk • Can’t be filtered out, does not dissipate • Water wasted in excessive flushing
SHORT TERM HEALTH EFFECTS Thousands of people in over 20 states reporting: Persistent skin rashes - burns • Pennsylvania Exposed to chloraminated Not exposed to water for 3 minutes chloramine
Respiratory - Asthma like symptoms Mono-Chloramine speciates into di-, tri-Chloramine with change in temperature and pH Tri-chloramine – known respiratory irritant In study intended to measure dermal effect – 100% of test mice died from inhaling tri-chloramine vapor Digestive ailments – Reflux Colitis Painful stomach
LONG TERM HEALTH EFFECTS Organic Material + Chloramine = Nitrogen in Raw Water Disinfection Byproducts (NDBP) DBPs of Chloramine N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) Hydrazine (rocket fuel) DXAA Iodoacetic Acid
LONG TERM HEALTH EFFECTS: • Creates a new, more toxic family of byproducts NDMA HYDRAZINE DXAA IODOACETIC ACID *Up to 100,000 times MORE TOXIC than TTHM/HAA * More toxic at smaller doses * Genotoxic, Cytotoxic and Mutagenic * Cannot be filtered out * Absorbed through skin in shower, bath, pool * NDMA and Hydrazine = ‘probable’ human carcinogens * Formed in distribution system
Iodoacetic Acids-most toxic DBPs found Nationwide DBP occurrence study iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. Sources of iodine compounds soil sea water intrusion iodinated contrast media from hospitals Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 7175−7185 Environmental Health Perspectives Dec 2011
Commonly used drugs form Nitrosamines in chloraminated water • Zantac (stomach acid reducer, ulcer) • Unisom (sleep aid) • Imitrex (migraine therapy) • Allerest 12 Hour (antihistamine) • Axid (ulcer, heartburn) • Cardizem (high blood pressure, angina) • Clistin (antihistamine) • Tetracycline (antibiotic)
Common household products can react with Chloramine to form NDMAs • Commonly used shampoos, conditioners and soaps contain ingredients that can react with chloramine to form NDMAs • Suave shampoo and Dawn dish detergent positively identified as forming NDMAs in chloraminated water
INEFFECTIVE BIOCIDE • Chloramine is the LEAST effective biocide of all the available treatments * 2,000 X less effective in killing e-coli, *100,000 X less effective in killing rotavirus *ineffective against Giardia and Cryptosporidium
FISH KILLS • Documented Fish Kills in Virginia, California and British Columbia * McLean in NOVA ---9 miles of stream killed - “everything down to the earthworms” * Henrico Co Fish Kill in Feb 2012 * Protected Steel Head Trout * 1000 species of salmonids and invertebrates
CORROSIVE – LEACHES LEAD • Washington D.C. – 4 years – EPA and CDC ignored and hid evidence of high levels of lead in the water after chloramine started • –law suits by parents are pending • – 1000’s of children exposed for 4 years • - no amount of lead is safe for children. • Dr. Marc Edwards exposed the levels through the press.
Other municipalities had excessive lead in tap water after chloramine was implemented • West View, PA- * 19 out of 98 homes elevated lead levels *levels of up to 130 ppb * > 8X the EPA maximum • Greenville, NC • Duke study • Chapel Hill, NC • Lead-free brass fittings • Poughkeepsie, NY • Could not control lead leaching despite pH changes and corrosion inhibitors • Reverted back to chlorine
Chloramine pits copper pipe • California – Developer suing water authority for pitted copper pipes throughout new development. • Seeking more than $20 million in damages, citing product liability, negligence, private nuisance and breach of warranty.
Chloramine is destructive to plumbing • Destroys rubber plumbing gaskets • Causes pipe corrosion (leaching lead and other dangerous metals) • Shortens lifespan of appliances Hot water heater
Representative failures from buildings after a utility switched to chloramine -from Marc Edwards 2003
HOMELAND SECURITY • Remember chlorine + ammonia is more stable, less reactive - Intentional contamination of our water – Chlorinewill react – levels will drop – alarms will go off Chloramine will not readily react – levels will NOT drop and no alarms will go off US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Lab, Champaign, Il. 61826
FILTRATION Home v. Water treatment facility Point of Use and Whole House Filters • * only reduces the mono-chloramine • * does not affect di- and tri- chloramine • * does not reduce or eliminate toxic byproducts • * does not protect you at school, work, vacation, family homes, hotels, restaurants, shopping centers, etc • * expensive + continuing expense – paying for protection from water we are paying to receive • Most households cannot afford effective filtration
WASTES WATER Chloramines allow build-up of biofilm in distribution system Necessitates annual “chlorine burns” to clean distribution system of bioslime. Reporting DBPs are exempted by EPA during burns Causes water system bio-fouling forcing utilities to discharge pollution into our environment and wasting massive amounts of drinking water. Example--Pinellas Co, FL-flushing volume increased from 5.7 to 35 million gal/month. Poughkeepsie, NY-excessive flushing due to corrosion
Municipalities that rejected chloramine: Seminole Co FL 2012 Leesburg VA 2011 Highland Park IL “upgraded to chlorine” 2011 Pittsburg PA 2011 Poughkeepsie NY 2011 West Columbia SC 2007
Poughkeepsie NY • March 2012 Water Board Meeting Minutes: • “Keith B......stated that his crews had to flush frequently wasting millions of gallons of water. Keith stated he also had multiple fire hydrant leaks. Sean E....... stated it is important that we capture what we know now to make decisions. Sean expressed concern that any action taken consider the life time costs not just capital expenses."
States that do not use chloramine: AK AL CT GA ID NM RI UT States where <1% of the population are on chloramine systems: AR DE HI MD NV NY OH WV
ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: 1. maintains residual effects 1. Short term health effects 2. reduces TTHMs and 2. Long term health effects HAAs 3. Ineffective biocide 4. Fish kills and watersheds 5. Lead leaching-pipe pitting 6. Homeland Security risk 7. can’t be filtered, boiled out 8. Wastes water from excessive flushing
Making a Case for Granular Activated Carbon as a Water Treatment Option
GAC is an EPA BAT for the following contaminants • Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) • Mercury and Cadmium • Natural Organic Matter • Synthetic Organic Chemicals (specifically: benzo(a)pyrene, di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate, di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate, hexachlorobenzene, dioxin) • Radionuclides
June 21 Public HearingFour Govt Boards Represented • Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority • Charlottesville City Council • Albemarle Board of Supervisors • Albemarle County Service Authority
June 21 Public HearingPanel Members • Dr. Dwight Flammia, MD, Toxicologist, Virginia Dept. of Health • Mark Edwards, Ph D., Civil Engineering Professor, Virginia Tech • Ms. Susan Pickford, Esq., Chloramine Info Center Web Site • Mr. Robert W. Bowcock, Integrated Resource Management, Inc. • Ben Stanford, Ph. D., Hazen and Sawyer • Mr. Jim Moore, Virginia Dept. of Health Lexington Field Office • Mr. Steve Via, American Water Works Association • Mr. Jerry Higgins, Superintendent-Manager, Blacksburg-Christiansburg VPI Water Authority