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Pertussis Whooping cough is back. Adapted for BugLine from presentation by: Cassandra D. Youmans, MD, MPH, MS-HCM, FAAP District Health Director East Central Health District VI. Objectives.

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pertussis whooping cough is back

PertussisWhooping cough is back

Adapted for BugLine from presentation by:

Cassandra D. Youmans, MD, MPH, MS-HCM, FAAP

District Health Director

East Central Health District VI

objectives
Objectives
  • Enhance East Central Public Health District VI’s ability to recognize and respond appropriately to pertussis
    • Refresh University Hospital healthcare personnel to allow appropriate treatment and reporting of pertussis
  • Give Tdap* vaccine to healthcare personnel to protect our:
    • Highest risk patients by surrounding them immunity
      • A circle of immunity made up of vaccinated caregivers
    • Healthcare personnel from “catching” pertussis

* Tdap, Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis

two pupils treated for pertussis saturday april 15 2006
Two Pupils Treated for PertussisSaturday, April 15, 2006
  • Columbia County School officials confirmed that at least one pupil tested positive for whooping cough, and the two siblings are being treated. One attended Evans High School, and the other Evans Middle School…highly contagious, spread through the air by cough and begins with cold symptoms and a cough…
  • The case was not properly reported to the public health department, allowing for the above
  • And the article included a warning to parents

Augusta Chronicle

resurgence of pertussis
Resurgence of Pertussis
  • Mutation
  • Waning vaccine-inducedimmunity 5 to 7 years after vaccination, leaving adolescents and adults unprotected
  • Waningdisease-induced immunity doesn’t last much longer than that of vaccination
  • Enhanced identification: Public health awareness, surveillance, diagnostic programs
bordetella pertussis the germ
Bordetella pertussis, the germ
  • Gram-negative rod
  • Humans are the only host
  • Incubation period 6-to-21 days (usually 7-to-10 days)
  • Duration of illness 6-to-10 weeks (usually 6 weeks)
  • Expected occurrence 3-to-5 year cycles of increased disease
  • Pertussis is under reported, 40-160 fold less than actual illness
  • Asymptomatic infections are 4–22 times more common than symptomatic infections
spread
Spread
  • Close person to person contact via aerosolized droplets from respiratory secretions of patients with disease
  • 90% of nonimmune household contacts acquire the disease
  • Adolescents and adults (27% of reported cases in 2004) are the major source of infection in unvaccinated children
  • Infants and young children are infected by older siblings who have mild to asymptomatic disease (43% of reported cases)
clinical symptoms
Clinical Symptoms
  • Initially mild upper respiratory tract symptoms (catarrhal stage,1-2wks), most contagious period progressive paroxysms of cough (paroxysmal stage 2-4 wks)
  • Inspiratory whoop, followed by vomiting
  • Fever minimal to absent
  • Symptoms subside gradually over months (convalescent stage1-2 wks)
clinical symptoms in infants
Clinical Symptoms in Infants
  • Most severe in infants <6 months
  • Atypical presentation
  • Apnea most common symptom
  • Whoop is absent
  • Hospitalization often needed
  • Lymphocyte predominant,increased white count can match severity of the cough

Infant Complications

  • Seizures (3%)
  • Pneumonia (22%)
  • Encephalopathy (1%)
  • Death
  • Case fatality rate:

1.3% in infants <1 month

0.3% in infants 2-11 months

diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Increase of pertussis antibody
    • IgA antibody titer to pertussis is becoming the method of choice
    • IgG antibody to pertussis toxin indicative of recent infection
    • Single serum test for significantly high pertussis specific antibody can confirm the diagnosis
  • Adolescents and adults with B. pertussis cough illness don’t seek care until the week 3-4 of illness
    • Organism most frequently recovered in catarrhal or early paroxysmal stage
  • PCR on nasopharyngeal secretions obtained with Dacron swab, put on special media, with 10 to 14 day incubation
    • Alert the Lab when pertussis is suspected - the culture media is not readily available
    • Negative cultures are common
treatment
Treatment
  • Aim is to eradicate nasopharyngeal carriage
  • Treatment duration usually 14 days with erythromycin sulfate (EES), newer Macrolides 5-7 days
  • Macrolides-erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin
  • Azithromycin eradicates naso-pharyngeal carriage the fastest
  • Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis has been reported with oral EES in infants younger than 6 weeks
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is an alternative to erythromycin-resistant strain, or for intolerance to macrolides
  • Penicillins, first and second generation cephalosporins are not effective
supportive care
Supportive Care
  • Hospitalized patients need to be on Droplet Isolation for 5 days after therapy
  • Monitor exposed children for respiratory symptoms for 20 days
  • Laboratory confirmation is difficult, so diagnosis often based on characteristic clinical manifestations
  • Children may return to school after 5 days of appropriate antibiotic therapy
prevention terms
Prevention - Terms
  • Tetanus Diphtheria (Td)
  • Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed (Tdap)
prevention immunization
Prevention = Immunization
  • Universal immunization of all children <7 years of age is recommended by the AAP
  • U.S. pertussis is an acellular vaccine in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids
  • Acellular vaccines contain one or more immunogens from B pertussis
  • Acellular vaccines are absorbed on aluminum salt and must be given intramuscularly
  • 3 DTaP, and 1 combined vaccine that includes DTaP and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine is given at 15-18 months
recommendations of the advisory committee on adult immunization practices acip
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Adult Immunization Practices (ACIP)
  • One dose of Tdap for adults 19– 64 years of age to replace the next booster does of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td)
  • Tdap for adults who have close contact with infants <12 months of age
  • May give Tdap within 2 year intervals to protect against pertussis
  • Tdap is not licensed for adults >65 years
contraindications and precautions
Contraindications and Precautions

Contraindications to Tdap

  • History of serious allergic reaction

(anaphylaxis) to vaccine components

  • History of encephalopathy not attributable

to an identifiable cause within 7 days of vaccination

with pertussis vaccine

Precautions to Tdap

  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome, 6 weeks

after a dose of tetanus toxoid

  • Moderate to severe acute illness
  • Unstable neurological condition
references
References
  • ACIP Votes to Recommend Use of Combined Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine for Adults. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. 2006
  • Cherry, JD. MD, MSc. The epidemiology of pertussis, Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2006; 25:4:361-362
  • Pickering, LK. Pertussis.The Red Book. 2003; 26:472-486
  • Gilbert, D.N. The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy. 2005; 35:24