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Early Childhood Theorists. Advanced Child Development. National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Refers to period from birth to eight Their belief: know the child, know where he is developmentally, know his talents and interests

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early childhood theorists

Early Childhood Theorists

Advanced Child Development

national association for the education of young children naeyc
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
  • Refers to period from birth to eight
  • Their belief: know the child, know where he is developmentally, know his talents and interests
  • Teachers be aware of: basic needs of play and rest, focusing on children’s development in all areas (physical, intellectual, emotional, social), cultural differences, and supporting parents and families.
developmentally appropriate practices dap
Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP)

All programs should be:

  • Age-appropriate
  • Individually appropriate
  • Hands on
  • Uses all senses
  • No winners or losers
  • Children explore and predict through hands-on props and activities
b f skinner
B.F. Skinner
  • Operant Conditioning- the use of consequences to modify behavior.
  • Reinforcement= Increase in Behavior
    • Positive Reinforcement: behavior is followed by a positive stimulus.
    • Negative Reinforcement: Behavior is followed by the removal of a negative stimulus.
  • Punishment = Decrease in Behavior
    • Positive Punishment: Behavior is followed by a negative stimulus.
    • Negative Punishment: Behavior is followed by removal of a positive stimulus.
b f skinner6
B.F. Skinner
  • Reinforcement = increase in behavior
  • Punishment = decrease in behavior
  • Positive= giving something
  • Negative= taking something away
constructivist theories

Constructivist Theories

Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Howard Garnder

constructivist theories8
Constructivist Theories
  • Constructivist Theory- emphasizes the active role of children in developing their understanding and learning.
  • Belief that children actively seek knowledge.
  • Explains cognitive development
  • Provides guidance for how and what to teach.
jean piaget
Jean Piaget
  • Active Learning
    • The view that children develop knowledge and learn by being physically and mentally engaged in learning activities.
  • Schemes
    • Organized units of knowledge
  • Adaptation
    • The process of building schemes through interaction with the environment.
jean piaget10
Jean Piaget
  • Assimilation
    • The process of fitting new information into existing schemes.
  • Accommodation
    • Changing or altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information.
  • Equilibrium
    • A balance between existing and new schemes.
jean piaget11
Jean Piaget
  • See handout on Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Sensorimotor
    • Preoperational
    • Concrete Operational
    • Formal Operational
jean piaget sensorimotor stage
Jean Piaget- Sensorimotor Stage
  • Birth – 2 years
  • Children learn through the senses and motor activities.
  • Review characteristics on handout!
jean piaget preoperational stage
Jean Piaget- Preoperational Stage
  • 2-7 years
  • Young children become capable of mental representations.
    • Representations- use symbols such as language, pictures, drawings, and play to represent objects and events.
    • Cannot Conserve- determine that the quantity of an object does not change simply because it changes in physical appearance.
    • Egocentric- speech is directed at oneself that helps guide behavior.
jean piaget concrete operations stage
Jean Piaget- Concrete Operations Stage
  • 7-12 years
  • Children’s thought is logical and can organize concrete experiences
  • Mastered conservation.
  • Able to classify.
lev vygotsky
Lev Vygotsky
  • Children’s mental, language, and social development is supported by and enhanced through social interaction.
    • Opposite of Piaget- who sees children as solitary developers of their own intelligence of language.
  • Believed that children seek out adult for social interaction.
  • Zone of Proximal Development
    • Range of tasks that are too difficult to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance.
  • Intersubjectivity
    • Individuals come to a task, problem, or conversation with their own way of making sense of it.
  • Scaffolding
    • Process of providing various types of support, guidance, or direction during the course of an activity.
howard gardner
Howard Gardner
  • Philosophy of Multiple Intelligences.
  • People can be smart in many different areas and in many different ways.
  • People learn in many different ways.

View and discuss handout on Gardner’s 8 Intelligences.

erik erikson
Erik Erikson
  • Idea that cognitive (brain) and social development occur hand-in-hand and cannot be separated.
  • Children’s personalities and social skills grow and develop in response to the demands, expectations, and values placed upon them by their surroundings.

View and discuss Erikson Handout.

abraham maslow
Abraham Maslow
  • Hierarchy of Needs
  • Everyone has the same basic needs.
  • These basic needs must be met before higher level needs can be satisfied.

View Hierarchy of Needs Handout.

urie brofenbrenner
  • The Ecological Theory
  • Looks at children’s development within the context of 5 environmental systems.

View and discuss Ecological Influences Diagram Handout!