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Age of the Reformation IV. Anabaptists, and the English Reformation. Anabaptists. Catabaptistae Anti-P æ dobaptists Credobaptists Widert ä ufer Heretics Brethren Beleivers Christians Anabaptists. Anabaptists. A history of radicalism Zwickau Prophets in Wittenberg (1521-1525)

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age of the reformation iv

Age of the Reformation IV

Anabaptists,

and the English Reformation

anabaptists
Anabaptists

Catabaptistae

Anti-Pædobaptists

Credobaptists

Widertäufer

Heretics

Brethren

Beleivers

Christians

Anabaptists

anabaptists1
Anabaptists
  • A history of radicalism
  • Zwickau Prophets in Wittenberg (1521-1525)
    • Had visions, dreams, and talked to God and Gabriel
    • Rejected the written word, regular ministry, and infant baptism
    • Preached the overthrow of all in the Millennium
    • Inspired the Peasants war
anabaptists2
Anabaptists
  • Münster Rebellion (1532-1536)
    • Anabaptist stronghold revolted
    • Became “New Jerusalem” 1534
    • The leader died leading a charge of 30 men while declaring he was Gideon
    • Came under the leadership of “King David” aka Jan Beukelszoon who instituted polygamy
    • January 1536 the town was lost and the rebels tortured, publicly executed and then displayed
anabaptists3
Anabaptists
  • Pacifist Anabaptism
    • Menno Simmons an ex-Roman Catholic priest
    • Joined other Anabaptists under a pacifist teacher
    • After Münster he allowed many to join the pacifist sect having greatest influence in the Netherlands
    • He guided and solidified Dutch Anabaptism resulting in them being renamed Mennonites
anabaptists4
Anabaptists
  • Swiss or mainstream Anabaptism
    • Led by Grebel, Manz, Blaurock, and Hübmaier
    • Three main doctrinal points
      • Believers Baptism
      • Separation of Church and State
      • Separation from the world/ungodliness
    • No specific mode of baptism
    • Believed in symbolic baptism/communion
    • Wrote many hymns
anabaptists5
Anabaptists
  • Persecution of Anabaptists in Switzerland
    • Debated Zwingli without result Re: infant baptism
    • Zwingli ordered all infants baptized or they and their families would be exiled
    • Anabaptist responded with a procession through town declaring “Woe, woe unto Zurich!”
    • 6 Anabaptists were executed leading to a nation wide persecution
    • Swiss persecution emphasized exile and drowning upon return rather than instant execution, though they still martyred quite a few Anabaptists
anabaptists6
Anabaptists
  • German/Austrian Persecution
    • Much more severe, taking Luther’s violent words and putting them to action
    • Even worse in Catholic controlled areas with thousands of martyred rather than hundreds
    • Behead those who recant, burn those who refuse
english reformation
English Reformation
  • A non-radical or extremist reformation
  • Started with a tradition of conservatism and honest reform, rather than a radical break from Rome
  • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was Chancellor of the realm, bishop of Winchester, ran the abbey of St. Albans, and was archbishop of York
  • He loved luxury and wanted to become pope, so had no real interest in breaking with Rome
english reformation1
English Reformation
  • Wolsey championed the “new learning” and criticized the abuses taking place in the monastery
  • Remodeled Oxford and funded professorships in theology and classics
  • Obtained papal sanction and suppressed ~40 monasteries
  • He declined to allow Henry VIII’s divorce and was deprived of office then arrested as a traitor
  • He died on the way to trial
english reformation2
English Reformation
  • Wolsey was replaced by Sir Thomas More who was a great example of an English Reformer
  • A good friend of Erasmus, he was well educated and dedicated to reformation of the Catholics
  • Wrote a book entitled Utopia
  • After becoming Chancellor he continued to carry out the reforms of Wolsey
  • He assented to Henry’s divorce, but unwillingly hoping to gain a break from papal taxes rather than a break from Rome
the english bible
The English Bible
  • Cambridge scholar William Tyndale requested permission to translate the bible
  • He was rejected then traveled to Hamburg to translate in secret
  • 1526 he first printed the NT, 1530 portions of the OT followed.
  • The bible was badly received by scholars due to many inaccuracies, Thomas More wrote thousands of pages of refutation against it.
the english bible1
The English Bible
  • The Bishop of London bought up all of the 15,000 copies he could find and burnt them. This financed many later printings
  • Tyndall’s version provided a basis for all later English translations of the bible
  • A newer version translated by Miles Coverdale used the Vulgate instead of Greek and Hebrew
  • The Coverdale bible was neither officially oppressed or supported
  • 1537 Matthew’s Bible a mix of Tyndale and Coverdale was printed
the english bible2
The English Bible
  • 1539 the “Great Bible” was printed
  • It was the officially accepted version that had been carefully translated by bishops
  • With it’s release it was ordered that every parish be furnished with a bible and that access to it would be made available to all
henry viii
Henry VIII
  • Henry VIII was second in line to become king behind his brother Arthur who married Catharine of Aragon
  • His brother died and Henry became Prince of Wales (crown prince) at 11 years old
  • After his fathers death in order to maintain ties with Spain he married Catharine in 1509
  • He received a special dispensation from pope Julius II allowing him to marry his brothers wife
henry viii1
Henry VIII
  • After 7 pregnancies and only one daughter to show for it, Henry became dissatisfied with Catharine as he wanted a male heir
  • He pursued the sister of his mistress named Anne Boleyn who wouldn’t have him without first being married
  • He sought a divorce with the “Spanish Cow”
  • The pope didn’t want to grant the divorce due to various political problems
henry viii2
Henry VIII
  • Henry in response declared the popes authority non-effective in England
  • This was not a break with the church and Henry was a good Catholic, he just wanted his desires more than he wanted the church
  • Without need for papal consent he was easily divorced and secretly married in 1533 later that year the marriage was made public
  • 1534 parliament passed the act of Supremacy
henry viii3
Henry VIII
  • Thomas More pleaded illness and retired as Chancellor after the Act of Supremacy was passed
  • He refused to acknowledge Henry as Supreme head of the church.
  • 3 years later he was hanged.
  • Henry passed the Six Articles asserting: cup-less communion, transubstantiation, celibacy of priests, endurance of vows of chastity, utility of private masses, and auricular confession
henry viii4
Henry VIII
  • The enforcement of the Six Articles and other acts resulted in the death of many protestants and Catholics
  • Henry continued to persecute monasteries and dissolved more than 400 confiscating their property
  • Henry was married 6 times, none seemed particularly happy
  • He died not particularly lamented in 1547 leaving Edward VI to become king
english reformation3
English Reformation
  • Edward VI was only nine when he became king leaving England to be ruled by his Regents
  • During his reign England became Protestant
  • The statute of burning heretics was removed, Communion was restored, clerical marriage was allowed and protestants were accepted
  • Cranmer wrote the “Book of Common Prayer” providing a liturgy for the new English church
  • Edward VI died 2 months after the Book was published and his half sister Mary took the throne
bloody mary i 1553 1558
(Bloody) Mary I 1553-1558
  • Mary I was the daughter of Henry and Catharine of Aragon and held her mothers sympathies with the Roman Catholic faith
  • One of her first acts as queen was to behead the ex-regent who resisted her accession
  • She married her Spanish Cousin Philip which was not well received by the English people.
  • She enforced Catholicism across England giving a triple test to heretics
  • Heretics were allowed to flee England, but if caught were tested and executed
bloody mary i 1553 15581
(Bloody) Mary I 1553-1558
  • 1553-1558 was her reign and ~300 were executed as heretics during this time, burning was her preferred method
  • Famous among the executed were Bishops Latimer and Ridley, and Archbishop Cranmer
  • Mary died more than likely of Ovarian cancer, which also explains why she never gave birth to an heir
  • She was succeeded by her younger half sister Elizabeth I
elizabeth i 1558 1603
Elizabeth I 1558-1603
  • Elizabeth was Protestant and restored much of the Protestant customs,
  • She was a clever and wise ruler so restored Protestantism slowly and with popular opinion
  • Rejected the Popes authority over England and replaced it with her own
  • Modified the 42 articles into the 39 Articles still used today
  • Was religiously tolerant and wanted religious peace above freedom
  • A wise ruler the “virgin queen” died the oldest English monarch (70 years old)