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Solutions. Chemistry Ms. Piela. Properties of Solutions. Solute – The dissolved particles of a solution Solvent – The dissolving medium in a solution. Solubility. Solubility – The amount of solute that dissolves in a given amount of solvent

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solutions

Solutions

Chemistry

Ms. Piela

properties of solutions
Properties of Solutions
  • Solute – The dissolved particles of a solution
  • Solvent – The dissolving medium in a solution
solubility
Solubility
  • Solubility – The amount of solute that dissolves in a given amount of solvent
  • Depends on the nature of the solute and solvent
  • Factors that affect the rate of dissolving:
    • Agitation
    • Surface Area
    • Temperature
properties of solutions1
Properties of Solutions
  • Saturated Solution – A solution containing the maximum amount of solute under a given set of conditions
  • Unsaturated Solution – A solution containing less than the maximum amount of solute

FYI!

    • Supersaturated solutions are solutions that contain more than the maximum amount of solute
solubility1
Solubility
  • Miscible – describes liquids that dissolve into each other
  • Immiscible – describes liquids that do not dissolve into each other
  • Example: Oil and Water
solubility of gases
Solubility of Gases
  • Factors affecting gas solubility
    • Temperature
    • Pressure
  • Example: 2 L bottle of pop
book work assignment
Book Work Assignment
  • Page 452-459
  • Answer the Pre-reading Questions
  • Define the vocabulary
  • READ the section!
  • Answer the Understanding Key Ideas of Section Review
  • IF YOU DON’T FINISH, IT IS HOMEWORK!! Due first thing tomorrow
solutions and mixtures
Solutions and Mixtures
  • Homogenous – constant composition throughout
    • Solutions are homogenous mixtures
  • Heterogenous Mixtures – not blended throughout
types of heterogenous mixtures
Types of Heterogenous Mixtures

Orange juice

with pulp

Oil and water

Paint

Suspension – Mixture in which particles spontaneously separate over time

types of heterogenous mixtures1
Types of Heterogenous Mixtures

Fog

Milk

Marshmallow

Colloid – Mixture w/ electric charges so particles won’t collect & separate

homogeneous mixtures are known as solutions
Homogeneous mixtures are known as solutions!
  • Water is the most common solvent, and when things are dissolved in water it is known as an aqueous solution
  • Solutions are stable, meaning they will not spontaneously become unmixed
homogenous mixtures are known as solutions
Homogenous mixtures are known as solutions!
  • Colloids are also stable, while suspensions are not… why?
    • Particles in suspensions are too large
  • Solutions are not always liquids. For example, metal alloys are also solutions

Example: Brass

methods of separating mixtures
Methods of Separating Mixtures
  • Pouring (referred to as decanting) off a liquid from a solid

Pouring

Centrifuge

Centrifuge

Based on difference

in densities

methods of separating mixtures1
Methods of Separating Mixtures
  • Distillation (for liquids only)
    • Based on differences in boiling points of liquids

Distilliation

Filtration

solubility rule
Solubility Rule!
  • “Like dissolves Like”
  • Meaning that polar dissolves polar, and vice versa
colligative properties
Colligative Properties
  • Any physical effect of the solute on the solvent
  • Depends on the number of solute particles
colligative properties1
Colligative Properties
  • Boiling Point Elevation – raising the boiling point using a solute

Example: NaCl in water

  • Freezing Point Depression – lowering the freezing point using a solute
    • Example: NaCl on roads