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UDC/DDC harmonization project. Religion Ia McIlwaine Chair, UDC Consortium. Why Religion?. In 2000 UDC published totally new scheme Attempts universal approach No Christian predominance Historical reflection of development

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udc ddc harmonization project

UDC/DDC harmonization project


Ia McIlwaine

Chair, UDC Consortium


why religion
Why Religion?

In 2000 UDC published totally new scheme

  • Attempts universal approach
  • No Christian predominance
  • Historical reflection of development

DDC pronounced Christian bias, accompanied by a range of options to overcome this

Is looking for simplification and modernization


nature of udc
Nature of UDC
  • Main Table plus
  • Range of auxiliaries

Common forms, Time, Place, Language, Race, Persons

  • Also

Common Properties, Activities, Materials


examples of recurring concepts
Examples of recurring concepts

-026.613 Colours

-027.13 Under-developed

-033.62 Porcelain

-035.554 Feathers

-048.37 Renewal

-049.6 Security


facet indicators in udc
Facet Indicators in UDC

+ / : all used to combine separate numbers

= Language

(0…) Common forms

(1/9) Place

(=…) Ethnic groupings & nationality

“…” Time

-0 Commonly recurring concepts – -02 Properties, -03 Materials, -04 Activities &c, -05 Persons


facet indicators
Facet indicators

Also special auxiliaries for recurring concepts within a specific subject field

– e.g. -1/-9 Literary forms in class 82 - Literature

.0 e.g. .03 Styles in Class 7 –Fine Arts

‘ e.g. Alloys in Metallurgy, 669

669.35’5’6 – Copper-zinc-tin alloys (combining 3 separate numbers)


other features of udc
Other features of UDC

The ability to join two (or more) numbers together to create a compound notation

Use of alphabetical notation

Many compound concepts do not appear in the schedules, except as “Examples of combination”


examples of combination
Examples of combination

005.92:004.63 Management of electronic records

504.4:551.515.3 Hurricane damage

601.2:576.31 Morphological behaviour


special auxiliaries
Special auxiliaries

Tables, applicable only within a stated set of numbers

(usually a discipline, or subdiscipline)

not universally applicable (so reusing the same notation)

Examples :

styles in art

literary forms


2 religion theology
2 Religion. Theology

21 Prehistoric and primitive religions

22 Religions originating in the Far East

23 Religions originating in Indian sub-continent

24 Buddhism

25 Religions of antiquity. Minor cults and religions

26 Judaism

27 Christianity. Christian churches and denominations

28 Islam

29 Modern spiritual movements


special auxiliaries in class 2
Special auxiliaries in Class 2

2-1 Theory and philosophy of religion. Nature of religion. Phenomenon of religion

2-2 Evidences of religion

2-3 Persons in religion

2-4 Religious activities. Religious practice

2-5 Worship broadly. Cult. Rites and ceremonies

2-6 Processes in religion

2-7 Religious organization and administration

2-8 Religions characterised by various properties

2-9 History of the faith, religion, denomination or church


examples of application
Examples of application

26-454-242 Teaching in the Torah on divorce

26 Judaism

-454 Divorce

-242 Torah. The Law. The Pentateuch

27-528-274.6 Scriptural authority of Christian liturgy

27 Christianity

-528 Liturgy

-274.6 Authority of Scripture


differential facets
Differential facets

These are necessary for concepts peculiar to one faith only, normally by expanding a base number from the Auxiliary table, e.g. to provide a different sequence for books of the Bible in Judaism from that in Christianity


ddc s solution
DDC’s solution

Option A:

Class the religion in 230–280, its sources in 220, comprehensive works on the religion in 230;

in that case class the Bible and Christianity in 298


ddc s solution1
DDC’s solution

Option B: Class in 210, and add to base number 21 the numbers following the base number for the religion in 292–299, e.g., Hinduism 210, Mahabharata 219.23; in that case class philosophy and theory of religion in 200, its subdivisions 211–218 in 201–208, specific aspects of comparative religion in 200.1–200.9, standard subdivisions of religion in 200.01–200.09


ddc s solution2
DDC’s solution

Option C: Class in 291, and add to base number 291 the numbers following the base number for that religion in 292–299, e.g., Hinduism 291, Mahabharata 291.923

Option D: Class in 298, which is permanently unassigned


ddc s solution3
DDC’s solution

Option E: Place first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., Hinduism 2H0 (preceding 220), or 29H (preceding 291 or 292); add to the base number thus derived, e.g., to 2H or to 29H, the numbers following the base number for the religion in 292–299, e.g., Shivaism 2H5.13 or 29H.513


ddc s solution4
DDC’s solution

Option A vacates the numbers devoted to Christianity for use by another religion. Options B and C provide preferred treatment (and shorter or equivalent numbers) for a specific religion. Both explicitly derive notation directly from the schedules for the preferred arrangement.


ddc s solution5
DDC’s solution

Option D provides preferred treatment and shorter numbers for a specific religion by relocating it to 298, a permanently unassigned number. Option E provides preferred treatment (and shorter or equivalent numbers) for a specific religion. Option E also uses notation derived from the schedules, but introduces the use of mixed notation.


ddc s solution6
DDC’s solution

Each of these options presents some problems and none gives the opportunity to provide an even-handed approach to the great religions of the world


ddc survey
DDC survey

56 responses from 13 countries

9 used one of the options

None used D or E

So, wholesale replacement of these options by one alternative arrangement under consideration perhaps using UDC as a model


mapping at major religion level
Mapping at major religion level

23 Religions of the Indian 294 Indic religions

Subcontinent Hindu religion in

the broad sense 294.5 Hinduism

231 Vedism 294.509013 Vedic religion

232 Brahmanism 294.5 (in class here note)

233 Hinduism narrowly 294.5 Hinduism

234 Jainism 294.4 Jainism

235 Sikhism 294.6 Sikhism

24 Buddhism 294.3 Buddhism

. . . . . .


mapping at major religion level1
Mapping at major religion level

26 Judaism 296 Judaism

27 Christianity 230 Christianity

28 Islam 297 Islam

(UDC – blue; DDC -green)

Both schemes place general topics of religion first - these have not been touched yet



UDC provides different notations for Jewish and Christian Bible, so even same book, e.g. Psalms, Genesis, Exodus, will have different numbers

DDC puts Bible ahead of both Christianity and Judaism – this to remain at present – other solutions may be explored later


rearrangement of ddc
Rearrangement of DDC

Taoism (299.514)

Confucianism (299.512)

Hinduism (294.5)

Jainism (294.4)

Buddhism (294.3)

Wicca (299.94)

Yoruba (African people) – religion (299.68333)

Voodoo (299.675)

Ras Tafari (299.676)

Bible (220)

Judaism (296)

Christianity (230)

Islam (297)

Scientology (299.936)



“New religions” or “minor religions” are collocated with their origin, where relevant, otherwise the root number is extended geographically, then chronologically, hence the placing of, e.g. Wicca, Ras Tafari


buddhism as a case study
Buddhism as a case study

UDC base number 24 + DDC notation

DDC 294.333 Buddhist mythology =



  • Moves to chronological position
  • Retains DDC number building & internal/auxilary tables
  • Meaningless notation in either system
  • Retains limited development


  • Structural differences and inconsistencies in both systems
  • Differences in enumeration/synthesis
  • Differences in main religion auxiliary table
  • Differences in common auxiliaries



UDC expansion developed using DDC’s concepts (but not order)

No problem in creating notations, but order differs dramatically

Differences in common auxiliaries also create a problem





28-441 Taharah. Mental and physical purification

28-442 Food and diet

28-442-027.568 Halal. Permitted food

28-442.2-027.583 Haram. Forbidden food

28-442-426.4 Fasting

28-442.5 Rules concerning specific foods and drinks

28-442.5:636.4 Pork

28-442.5:663.2/.5 Rules concerning alcoholic drinks


fundamental problems that need to be addressed
Fundamental problems that need to be addressed

28-442 Food & diet

-027.568 Permitted

-027.583 Forbidden

(The -0 numbers are from Common auxiliary of Common Properties)

:636.4 Pork (from class 63)

:663.2/.5 Alcoholic drinks (from 66)

Note 663.2 to 663.5 specify a range of alcoholic drinks, expressed by using the slash for consecutive numbers


greater detail in udc
Greater detail in UDC

28-426 Objects in worship. Furnishings and decorations

28-526.1 Furniture. Platforms Lecterns

28-526.1-032.2 Fountains

28-526.11 Dikka. Platform

28-526.13 Minbar. Pulpit

28-526.15 Kursi. Lectern

28-526.4 Tasbih. Subhah. Beads


greater detail in udc1
Greater detail in UDC

28-565 Major fasts and festivals

28-565.5 Rajab (7th month of Islamic year)

28-565.51 Laylat al-Mi’raj (‘Night of the Ascent’ of Muhammed into heaven) (Rajab 27th)

28-565.6 Ramadan. Month of fasting (9th month of Islamic year)

28-565.62 Laylat al Qadr. ‘Night of Power’ (commemorating the sending down of the Koran to Muhammed) (Ramadan 27th)

28-565.7 Shawwal (10th month of Islamic year)

28-565.71 ‘Id al-Adha. Feast of the Breaking of the fast (Shawwal 1st)

28-565.8 Dhu-l-Hijja (12th month of Islamic year)

28-565.81 Annual pilgrimage ceremonies in and near Mecca (Dhu-l-Hijja 8th-13th)

28-565.83 ‘Id al-Adha. Feast of the Sacrifice. ‘Id al-Hajj. Feast of the Pilgrimage (Dhu-l-Hijja 10th)


same concepts in ddc
Same concepts in DDC

No detail for physical contents of mosques and festivals are handled thus:


297 36 special days and seasons
297.36 Special days and seasons

Including Jum'ah (Friday prayer); `Ashura' (Tenth of Muharram); Mawlid al-Nabi (Prophet's birthday); `Id al-Adha, `Id al-Fitr

Class here rites and ceremonies associated with special days and seasons, Islamic religious calendar

See also 297.37 for sermons for special days and seasons

297.362 Sawm Ramadan (Annual fast of Ramamadan)

Including Laylat al-Qadr

Class comprehensive works on fasting in 297.53


conclusions to date
Conclusions to date
  • Basic overall arrangement can easily be implemented
  • This will create greater interoperability
  • Improve the structure of both schemes
  • UDC framework works at basic level for DDC
  • Level of detail more problematical, and needs to be resolved