The protestant reformation
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The Protestant Reformation. Chapter 13 Section 3. Corrupt Church. Popes were living a rich and luxurious lifestyle Popes were also hiring painters and sculptors to beautify churches To finance these projects, the Church increased fees for marriages and baptisms. Need More $$$.

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The protestant reformation

The Protestant Reformation

Chapter 13

Section 3

Corrupt church
Corrupt Church

  • Popes were living a rich and luxurious lifestyle

  • Popes were also hiring painters and sculptors to beautify churches

  • To finance these projects, the Church increased fees for marriages and baptisms

Need more
Need More $$$

  • The Church still needed more money

  • Decided to sell indulgences


  • Were believed to lessen the time a person’s soul would have to spend in purgatory

  • They used to only be granted for good deeds, such as fighting in the Crusades

Martin luther
Martin Luther

  • 1517

  • Did not approve of the sale of indulgences

Not this martin luther
Not this Martin Luther

  • Just so there is no confusion….

Luther s protest
Luther’s Protest

  • In 1517, Johann Tetzel set up a pulpit on the outskirts of Wittenburg

  • Sold indulgences to anyone who

    Contributed money towards the

    rebuilding of St. Peter’s Cathedral

    in Rome

Tetzel s indulgences
Tetzel’s Indulgences

  • Tetzel made big claims about his indulgences

  • He claimed that the purchase of these indulgences would assume entry into heaven not only for the purchasers but for their dead relatives as well.

  • “Don’t you hear the voices of your dead parents and other relatives crying out?”

95 theses
95 Theses

  • Written by Luther

  • Posted it on Church door

95 theses1
95 Theses

  • He argued that indulgences had no basis in the Bible, that the Pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could be saved only through faith

Luther vs the church
Luther vs. The Church

  • Almost overnight, copies of the 95 Theses were printed and distributed across Europe

  • The Church wanted Luther to recant or give up his views

Luther refuses
Luther Refuses

  • Luther would refuse and began urging Christians to reject the authority of Rome

  • Luther would be excommunicated by 1521

Diet of worms
Diet of Worms

  • Ordered to attend by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

  • Luther went expecting to defend his writings, but the emperor simply ordered him to give them up

Luther is found guilty
Luther is Found Guilty

  • Luther was declared an outlaw, making it a crime for anyone in the empire to give him food or shelter

  • Luther had powerful supporters and hid out in castles

  • Remained in hiding for nearly a year and thousands saw him as a hero

Luther s teachings
Luther’s Teachings

  • Rejected the Church doctrine that good deeds were necessary for salvation

  • Upheld the Bible as the sole source of religious truth

  • Rejected the idea that priests and the Church hierarchy had special powers

Teachings continued
Teachings Continued…

  • Rejected five of the seven sacraments because the Bible did not mention them

  • Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints

  • Simplified the ritual of mass and instead emphasized the sermon

A few more
A Few More…

  • Permitted clergy to marry

  • These became the foundation of the Lutheran Church

Spread of lutheran ideas
Spread of Lutheran Ideas

  • Followers of Luther were called Protestants

  • Those who “protested” papal authority

Who supported him
Who Supported Him?

  • Many clergy saw Luther’s reforms as the answer to Church corruption

  • Others supported him on the basis of national loyalty, they were tired of German money going to support churches and clergy in Italy

Peace of augsburg
Peace of Augsburg

  • Signed in 1555, allowed each prince to decide which religion, Catholic, or Lutheran, would be followed in his lands. Most northern German states chose Lutheranism, the south remained largely Catholic


  • In 1541, Protestants in Geneva asked Calvin to lead their community


  • Believed salvation was through faith alone

  • Preached predestination the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation

  • Calvinists believed the world was divided into two kinds of people, saints and sinners

Calvin s government
Calvin’s Government

  • He set up a theocracygovernment run by church leaders

  • Saw themselves as the “chosen people”


  • Citizens faced fines or other harsher punishments for offenses such as fighting, swearing, laughing in church, or dancing

  • Believed in religious education for both boys and girls

  • Women should read the Bible in private, allowed them to sing in church

Spread of calvinism
Spread of Calvinism

  • Germany, France, Netherlands, England, and Scotland

  • Faced opposition from Catholics and Lutherans

  • Wars raged between French Calvinsits, called Hugenots, and Catholics

Field preachers
Field Preachers

  • To avoid persecution, “field preachers” gave sermons in the countryside, away from the eyes of town authorities

  • John Knox, a Calvinist preacher in Scotland led a religious rebellion

  • Scottish Protestants overthrew the Catholic queen and set up Scottish Presbyterian Church