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Cyberinfrastructure for Astronomy. Roy Williams US National Virtual Observatory Project California Institute of Technology. Toward a “new astronomy”. Past: Observations of small, carefully selected samples. Trends. Future dominated by detector improvements.

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Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

Cyberinfrastructurefor

Astronomy

Roy Williams

US National Virtual Observatory Project

California Institute of Technology


Toward a new astronomy
Toward a “new astronomy”

  • Past: Observations of small, carefully selected samples


Trends
Trends

  • Future dominated by detector improvements

  • Moore’s Law growth in CCD capabilities

  • Gigapixel arrays on the horizon

  • New Detector Technologies (e.g., STJ)

  • Improvements in computing and storage will track growth in data volume

  • Investment in software is critical, and growing

Total area of 3m+ telescopes in the world in m2, total number of CCD pixels in Megapixels, as a function of time. Growth over 25 years is a factor of 30 in glass, 3000 in pixels.



New astronomy data mining
New Astronomy: Data Mining

  • Future: Multi-wavelength data for millions of objects, allowing us to:

    • Discover significant patterns from the analysis of statistically rich and unbiased image/catalog databases

    • Understand complex astrophysical systems via confrontation between data and sophisticated numerical simulation


New astronomy new views
New Astronomy: New Views

  • Simultaneous access to

    • multi-wavelength archives,

    • advanced visualization and

    • statistical analysis tools


New astronomy multispectral imagery
New Astronomy: Multispectral Imagery

Crab Nebula.3 channels: X-ray in blue, optical in green, and radio in red.

Moffet Field California. 224 channels from 400 nm to 2500 nm


The virtual observatory
The Virtual Observatory

US VO

http://us-vo.org

International VO

http://ivoa.net


Interoperability
Interoperability

VizieR: Contains more than 4000 astronomical catalogues consisting of one or several tables.

“Give me all tables containing the V magnitude in the Johnson system.”

144 different names for Johnson V.



Science applications
Science applications

  • Resource discovery: Registry

  • Data discovery and integration: DataScope

  • Database queries and cross-correlation: OpenSkyQuery

  • Spectrum browsing and analysis: Spectrum Services

  • Source extraction / cross-correlation: WESEX, WCS fixer

  • Sky coverage of catalogs: Catalog Coverage Maps

  • On-demand mosaicking: Mosaic Service


Nvo registry portal
NVO Registry Portal

Find source catalogs, image archives, and other astronomical resources registered with the NVO

A Registry is a distributed database of Virtual Observatory resources: primarily access services for catalog, image, and spectral data, but also descriptions of organizations and data collections. There are several coordinated registry implementations that share information by harvesting each other's resources. This registry is at STScI in Baltimore, MD.

Searches for resources can be done by keyword, or advanced queries can be expressed in the SQL language. The registry is open for humans through web forms, or machines through SOAP web services.


Datascope
DataScope

Discover and explore data in the Virtual Observatory

Using the NVO DataScope scientists can discover and explore hundreds of data resources available in the Virtual Observatory. DataScope uses the VO registry and VO access protocols to link to archives and catalogs around the world. Users can immediately discover what is known about a given region of the sky: they can view survey images from the radio through the X-ray, explore archived observations from multiple archives, find recent articles describing analysis of data in the region,

find known interesting or peculiar objects and survey datasets that cover the region. A summary page provides a quick précis of all of the available data. Users can download images and tables for further analysis on their local machines, or they can go directly to a growing set of VO enabled analysis tools, including Aladin, OASIS, VOPlot and VOStat.


Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

DataScope with VOEvent

See archival images corresponding to the latest gamma-ray bursts

The “view-data” link goes directly to DataScope.

See the event context from all major surveys.

The results have already been collected from across the VO as soon as the GRB happens.


Openskyquery
OpenSkyQuery

Cross-match your data with numerous catalogs

OpenSkyQuery allows you to cross-match astronomical catalogs and select subsets of catalogs with a general and powerful query language. You can also import a personal catalog of objects and cross-match it against selected databases.


Spectrum services
Spectrum Services

Search, plot, and retrieve SDSS, 2dF, and other spectra

The Spectrum Services web site is dedicated to spectrum related VO services. On this site you will find tools and tutorials on how to access close to 500,000 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR1) and the 2 degree Field redshift survey (2dFGRS). The services are open to everyone to publish their own spectra in the same framework. Reading the tutorials on XML Web Services, you can learn how to integrate the 45 GB spectrum and passband database with your programs with few lines of code.


Web enabled source identification with cross matching wesix
Web Enabled Source Identification with Cross-Matching (WESIX)

Upload images to SExtractor and cross-correlate the objects found with selected survey catalogs.

This NVO service does source extraction and cross-matching for any astrometric FITS image. The user uploads a FITS image, and the remote service runs the SExtractor software for source extraction. The resulting catalog can be cross-matched with any of several major surveys, and the results returned as a VOTable. The web page also allows use of Aladin or VOPlot to visualize results.


Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

WCS Fixer

Refine an image with approximate pixel mapping to the exact WCS solution

An essential part of an astronomical image is the mapping between pixels and sky — the so-called WCS information. This NVO service takes an image with approximate WCS and computes the exact WCS, using major catalogs such as USNO-B and SDSS.

  • Source detect

  • Match to catalog

  • Fit parameters

Input image

USNO-B1

USNO-A2

SDSS

NOMAD

Exact WCS

Client

Remote NVO Service


Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

Catalog Coverag Maps

Find catalogs and source density for the position or object name of interest

An all-sky map showing distribution of sources across the sky. Dynamically generate a custom map for specific region and selection of catalogs. Composite all-sky overlay maps show which regions are covered by all of the selected catalogs.

Catalogue of Stellar Spectral Classifications (Skiff, 2005)


Try it out
Try it out!

  • Start at http://us-vo.org

  • Develop your own VO-enabled software with the NVO Summer School software kit

  • For developers: come to the 2006 NVO Summer School in Aspen






Under the hood standards
Under the hood…… standards


Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

Services

Registry

Views


Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

Portals, Applications, Interfaces

Spectrum

Datacube

Source Catalog

Image

Region

Education

Event

Spectral Lines

Characterization

FITS

Space/Time

VOTable

Semantics

MIME type

File/Blob

XML

Table

Services, Filesystems, VOSpace

View:

Client’s Frame of Reference


Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

Service Requests

Custom ....

Image

Spectrum

Catalog

Datacube

Registry

Cone

VOSpace

Query Language

Contracts (WSDL)

Async

Certificates

Accounts & Security

Grid& Globus

Protocols (SOAP, REST, GET)

WWW

Files and Databases

Service:

Interacting with remote resources

internet


Example web service
Example Web Service

  • Web Services

  • Remote execution

  • Structures in and out

  • Self-defined (WSDL)

  • Click or code

Client interface

name= M51

x= 10

y= 10

sky_survey=DSS2_red

mime_type=download_gif

Service

endpoint

http://archive.eso.org/dss/dss/image

Request: Keyword/value

Response: image/gif


Mosaicking engine from services
Mosaicking enginefrom services

NVO Registry

Logical SIAP

Trust

Request:survey,region,

[login]

Portal

Physical SIAP

web access

Image Data Service

Sandbox

Computing


Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

Image

Spectrum

Skynode

RegistryofRegistries

Cone

Custom ....

Etc etc ....

Organization

Provenance

Compute Service

Event publisher

Application

Service

Registry Curation

IVO identifiers

Harvest

Registry:

Publish, Find & Use


Distributed registry
Distributed Registry

Astrogrid

CfA

NCSA

CDS

ESO

STScI/JHU

NOAO

Caltech

HEASARC

JapanVO

Ongoing harvesting May 05


Datascope1

Registry

OAI

Query

Registry

Registry

OAI

OAI

Publish

Publish

DataScope

  • Federates multiple cone, SIAP services

JHU/StSci

NCSA

4

Caltech

Goddard

DataScope

2

1

3


Palomar quest a repeating sky survey caltech yale

Palomar-QuestA repeating sky surveyCaltech-Yale


Palomar quest survey djorgovski baltey drake graham mahabal williams
Palomar-Quest SurveyDjorgovski, Baltey, Drake, Graham, Mahabal, Williams

Transient pipeline

computing reservation at sunrise

for immediate followup

of transients

Synoptic survey

massive resampling

for ultrafaint detection

of hi-Z quasars

P48 Telescope

50 Gbyte/night

ALERT

Yale

Caltech

NCSA

NCSA and Caltech and Yale run different pipelines on the same data


Griffith observatory big picture
Griffith Observatory“big picture”

158 feet

158 feet

158 feet

Show tile b14



Voevent

VOEvent

Instant Messaging for Astronomy

Automated architecture

Structured packets

Trust

1604 image of Cas A


Transient sources in the sky
Transient Sources in the Sky

  • Asteroids

  • Variables and binaries

  • Supernova

  • Gamma-ray burst

  • Lensing events

  • Gravitational waves

  • etc etc and:

    • NOT YET THOUGHT OF ....?

  • http://voeventnet.caltech.edu/transients/


  • Gamma ray burst satellite feed
    Gamma-ray Burst Satellite Feed

    author/publisher

    telephone

    email

    socket

    subscriber

    subscriber

    subscriber

    Single provider

    Structured, for machine understanding

    Fixed structures

    Standard transports


    Roy williams us national virtual observatory project california institute of technology

    OGLE III

    Poland

    GCN

    NASA/GSFC

    Liverpool Telescope

    La Palma

    SDSS SNe

    U Washington/Stanford

    Faulkes

    Hawaii/Australia

    Exeter, UK

    Palomar-Quest

    Caltech

    Caltech

    Los Alamos

    Microlensing Survey

    Exeter

    UKIRT

    Hawaii

    Tucson

    Palomar P60

    Caltech

    Author

    Publisher

    Repository

    Relay

    Subscriber

    Raptor

    LANL

    Pairitel

    Berkeley

    CTIO/KPNO

    surveys


    Sources of events
    Sources of Events

    • GCN, (Swift, Integral, etc)

    • Palomar-Quest (Caltech), Raptor (LANL), etc

    • Supernova factories

    • Variable star observers (AAVSO)

    • non-photon:

      • LIGO, neutrinos, cosmic rays, etc

    • Future

      • PannStarrs, LSST


    Voevent structure
    VOEvent Structure

    • Who

      • Publisher, Contact, etc

      • Subscribers will use PublisherID to select

  • WhereWhen (== STC)

    • Can be simple eg RA, Dec, eg UTC

    • Can be sophisticated, eg multiple frames, near objects, etc

  • What

    • Hierarchy of named parameters

    • Units, Semantic type (UCD)

    • References, Descriptions

  • How

    • How was the evidence gathered: camera, telescope, etc

  • Why

    • probability list of interpretation

      • supernova, comet, asteroid, .....

  • Citation

    • Link to other VOEvent: Followup, Supercede, Retraction,

    • Link to support data


  • Google like interfaces coming
    Google-like interfaces (coming)

    • Prototype pan/zoom at Pittsburgh