angiosperms flowering plants n.
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ANGIOSPERMS FLOWERING PLANTS. EVOLUTIONARY ADVANTAGES 1. Seed production 2. Seed dispersal 3. Broad leafs-loose leaves 4. Root modified for storage. ANGIOSPERMS VS GYMNOSPERMS. Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm 1. Xylem in abundance 1. Mostly tracheids

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ANGIOSPERMS FLOWERING PLANTS


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angiosperms flowering plants
ANGIOSPERMS FLOWERING PLANTS
  • EVOLUTIONARY ADVANTAGES
  • 1. Seed production
  • 2. Seed dispersal
  • 3. Broad leafs-loose leaves
  • 4. Root modified for storage
angiosperms vs gymnosperms
ANGIOSPERMS VS GYMNOSPERMS
  • Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm
  • 1. Xylem in abundance 1. Mostly tracheids
  • 2. Flowers and fruit 2. Naked seed-cone
  • 3. Form pistil for pollen tube 3. Grows directly to ovule
  • 4. Triploid endosperm 4. Haploid endosperm
  • 5. Have vessels-long narrow 5. Have tracheids
  • 6. Leaves lost in cold climates
monocots
MONOCOTS
  • 1. Monocotyledones: lilies, grasses, cattails, palms
  • a. Leaves exhibit parallel veins
  • b. Flower parts in threes or multiples of 3
  • c. Embryos have one cotyledon
  • d. Monocots more often possess swollen underground storage
  • e. Endosperm usually present in mature monocot
  • h. Scattered vascular bundles
  • i. No secondary growth
flowers
FLOWERS
  • A. Corolla- petals
  • 1. Composed of petals
  • 2. Functions to attract pollinators to flower
  • B. Calyx
  • 1. Composed of sepals
  • 2. Similarities in leaves and sepals, share common evolutionary origin
  • a. Pattern of veins
  • b. Coloration and form
  • C. Carpel-traditionally called pistil(female)
  • 1. Primitive plants have leaf like carpels
  • 2. Slender style between ovary and receptive stigma
  • 3. Ovary
  • a. Megasporangium(2N)
  • b. Meiosis produces megaspores
  • c. Develop into ovules
  • 1. 2 polar nuclei(2N total)
  • 2. 1 egg nuclei(N)
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D. Stamen(male)
  • 1. Composed of filament plus anther
  • 2. Pollen produced in and matures in anthers
  • 3 Anther contains microsporangia or pollen sacs
  • a. Microspore mother cells produce microspores-develop into pollen grains
  • b. Mature microgametophytes
  • 1. Two are sperm nuclei
  • 2. Third is tube nucleus that grows into pollen tube
  • 3. Pollen carried by numerous animals
  • E. Enhanced by various reward systems like nectar from nectaries

F. Evolution of floral characteristics associated with pollination

dicot
DICOT
  • Dicotyledones: trees, shrubs, snapdragons, mints
  • a. Leaves exhibit netlike veins
  • b. Flower parts in fours or five's or multiples
  • c. Embryos have two cotyledon-starch and food source for embryo
  • d. No endosperm in mature seed
  • e. Concentrated vascular tissue
  • f. Cambium provides secondary growth