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Welcome to Bio 290, Introduction to Genetics!. Today’s Agenda:. In-Class Assignment 2 Group Discussion about Gene Therapy Paper Introduction to Independent Assortment of Genes (Ch 3) Poster Project-Identify topic and decide if you will work in groups.

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Welcome to Bio 290, Introduction to Genetics!


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today s agenda
Today’s Agenda:
  • In-Class Assignment 2
  • Group Discussion about Gene Therapy Paper
  • Introduction to Independent Assortment of Genes (Ch 3)
  • Poster Project-Identify topic and decide if you will work in groups
why is it important to understand independent assortment of genes
Why is it important to understand independent assortment of genes?
  • In agriculture?
  • In animal breeding?
  • In genetics research?
what does independent assortment mean
What does independent assortment mean?
  • Chromosome pairs act independently at meiosis
  • Alleles of the heterozygous gene pairs show an “independent assortment”
mendel s peas again
Mendel’s peas again…
  • He performed a dihybrid cross
  • Used the genes for seed shape and seed color
mendel crossed two homozygous dihybrids
Mendel crossed two homozygous dihybrids
  • What is the expected genotypes of the F1?
  • What is the expected phenotype if the F1 is selfed?
mendel s 2nd law principle of independent assortment
Mendel’s 2nd Law (Principle of Independent Assortment)
  • He concluded that different gene pairs assort independently in gamete formation
  • What type of genes would not follow this law?
predicting ratios of progeny branch diagrams
Predicting ratios of progeny: Branch diagrams
  • Perform a dihybrid cross of self A/a;B/b
  • How many different genotypes?
  • How many different phenotypes?
statistical approach to predicting progeny is easier
Statistical approach to predicting progeny is easier
  • Product rule: Probability of independent events both occurring together is the product of individual probabilities
  • Ex: What is the probability that I can roll a “6” on two dice?
statistical approach to predicting progeny is easier1
Statistical approach to predicting progeny is easier
  • Sum rule: Probability of either two mutually exclusive events occurring is the sum of their individual probabilities
  • Ex: What is the probability of rolling two 5’s ortwo 6’s?
what is the chi squared test
What is the chi-squared test?
  • Statistical analysis to compare predicted ratios to an actual observed ratio…to determine if a hypothesis is correct
an example
An example
  • You have a jar with 200 marbles, 100 of them are red and 100 of them white. You remove 100 marbles
    • What ratio would expect of red:white?
    • How can you interpret that you actually have 60 red and 40 white….
use chi squared
Use Chi-squared
  • χ2 = Σ (O − E)2/E
    • for all classes in which E is the expected number in a class, O is the observed number in a class, and Σ means sum of.
why are pure lines important
Why are pure lines important?
  • What types of alleles are expressed if a monohybrid (A/a) is selfed?
  • What happens over more successive generations?
what is meant by hybrid vigor
What is meant by hybrid vigor?
  • When two lines are united in an F1 hybrid, hybrid shows greater size and vigor
  • First seen with corn….any other examples?
meiosis in neurospora
Meiosis in Neurospora
  • Meiosis followed by mitosis results in 8 ascospores
meiotic recombinants
Meiotic Recombinants?
  • Why is this important?
polygenic inheritance
Polygenic Inheritance
  • Can you think of any examples of characteristics that exhibit a lot of variation?
polygenic inheritance1
Polygenic Inheritance
  • Progeny of dihybrid self can be expressed as additive allelic “doses”
how are organelles inherited
How are organelles inherited?
  • Remember the composition of the egg and sperm?
reminders for next week
Reminders for Next Week
  • Agriculture Paper - Start Reading! (Pre-class assignment on Review Paper due Thursday at 2)
  • Read Chapter 3: Focus on key points we’ve identified today to help you prepare for the Quiz
  • Quiz 3- Posted by Monday at noon, due by Wednesday at noon.
  • Don’t forget to use our fabulous Discussion Room!