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Agenda • Introductions and course information • CSCW overview
Overview Class Information • Some reading (pick up readings from Engineering Copy Center) • Some lectures • A lot of discussion • One paper • One programming assignment
Using Online Tools We will rely heavily on CSCW tools in this class • EEE chat rooms will be open during class • Office hours will be held online • The wiki will be used to coordinate your groups and turn in assignments
Your grades… • Class participation 20% • Quizzes 40% • Programming assignment 20% • Final 20%
Class Website • http://cleo.ics.uci.edu/Teaching/Fall08/153/index.html
CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) • Study of how people work together as a group and how technology affects this practice. • Support the social processes of work, often among geographically separated people.
Examples • Scientists collaborating on a technical issue • Authors editing a document together • Programmers debugging a system concurrently • Workers collaborating over a shared video conferencing application • Buyers and sellers meeting in eBay
Research Focus Often divided into two main areas • Systems – Groupware • Designing software to facilitate collaboration • Social component • Study of human and group dynamics in such situations
Classification by Time/Space Time Same Different Same Place Different
Time/Space Taxonomy Time Synchronous Asynchronous Face-to-face Post-it note Co-located E-meeting room Argument. tool Place Phone call Letter Remote Email, newsgroup, CoWeb Video window,wall I
understanding P P direct participants communication control andfeedback A artifacts of work Classification by Function • Cooperative work involves: • Participants who are working • Artifacts upon which they work
P P Communication via an artifact understanding • Deixis • reference to work objects • Feedthrough • communication through the artifact direct communication deixis control andfeedback A
meeting and decision support systems • common understanding understanding P P direct • computer-mediated communication • direct communication between participants participants communication control andfeedback A artefacts of work • shared applications and artifacts • control and feedback with shared work objects What interactions does a tool support?
Meeting and Decision Support Systems • Examples • Corporate decision-support conference room • Provides ways of rationalizing decisions, voting, presenting cases, etc. • Concurrency control is important • Shared computer classroom/cluster • Group discussion/design aid tools
Computer-mediated Communication Aids • Email • IM • SMS • Chats • MUDs • virtual worlds • desktop videoconferencing
Shared Applications and Tools • Want to avoid “locking” and allow multiple people to concurrently work on document • Requires some form of contention resolution • How do you show what others are doing?
Social Issues • People bring in different perspectives and views to a collaboration environment • Goal of CSCW systems is often to establish some common ground and to facilitate understanding and interaction
Turn Taking • There are many subtle social conventions about turn taking in an interaction • Personal space, closeness • Eye contact • Gestures • Body language • Conversation cues
Geography, Position • In group dynamics, the physical layout of individuals matters a lot • “Power positions” (Stasko)
The Challenge of Engineering and Math: Anecdotes • On a mandatory assignment involving a math class studying results from Engineering students’ simulations, 40% of math students accepted a zero rather than collaborate with engineers. • Swiki team provided an Equation Editor in the CoWeb (A Wiki at GT) for an Engineering and a Math course to facilitate talking about equations. Not a single student even tried the Editor.
Competition • Student quotes on “Why didn’t you participate in CoWeb?” “1) didn't want to get railed 2) with the curve it is better when your peers do badly” “since it is a curved class most people don’t want others to do well” (Note: Students claimed that the course grades were “curved” even when there was none!)
Learned helplessness • Student quotes: “I haven't posted about questions because I am confident that my answers are wrong.” “I thought I was the only one having problem understanding what was asked in the exam.” “Who am I to post answers?” “The overall environment for [this class] isn't a very help-oriented environment.” Bottom line: For Collaboration to work in Engineering,must be explicit focus to make it work.
For Thursday • History of CSCW • You know the drill… names and pictures on the wiki