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Medical Parasitology Lab.

Medical Parasitology Lab.

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Medical Parasitology Lab.

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  1. Medical Parasitology Lab. Prepared By: Mr. Raed Z. Ahmed Staining of Parasites Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  2. Intestinal Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  3. Cryptosporidium parvum • Infect human and most mammals. • The infective stage is oocyst containing sporozoites measuring 4-6µ in diameter. • The diagnostics stage is sporulatedoocyst containing 4 sporozoites. • Diagnosis: • Detecting oocyst in stool. • Acid-fast stain. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  4. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst • The most common method of diagnosing Cryptosporidiosis is acid-fast staining methods or the Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  5. Intestinal Protozoa Isospora belli Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  6. Isospora belli • Isosporiasis is a human intestinal disease caused by the parasite Isospora belli. • The coccidian parasite Isospora belli infects the epithelial cells of the small intestine, and is the least common of the three intestinal coccidia that infect humans. • Infection causes acute, non-bloody diarrhea with crampy abdominal pain, which can last for weeks and result in malabsorption and weight loss. In immunodepressed patients, and in infants and children, the diarrhea can be severe. Eosinophilia may be present. • Diagnosis: • Acid- fast stain Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  7. Isospora belli oocyst Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  8. Tissue Nematodes Trichinella spiralis Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  9. Life cycle Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  10. Trichinella spiralis • Cause trichinosis, trichiniasis or trichinelliasis.. • Adult inhabit the small intestine of the rats, pigs and human. Both males and females lie freely in the lumen of the intestine of pigs, rats and human. • Fertilized female only penetrate the mucosa where the larviposit, they do not lay eggs. • Larvae is the infective stage, live encysted in the flesh of the host, and they represent the diagnostic stage. • Human infected by eating undercooked pork containing infective encysted larvae. • Human is dead end host. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  11. Continue……….. • Diagnosis: • Finding larvae in the blood during migration or in muscle after encystation. • Immunological tests. • X- ray to detect the calcified larvae in muscle. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  12. Trichinella spiralis larvae encysted in muscle Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  13. Intestinal Nematodes Entrobius vermicularis Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  14. Life cycle Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  15. Entrobius vermicularis • Also named as human pin worm and seat worm, cause oxyurdiasis. • Young and mature worms are present in small intestine (at terminal ileum till fertilization). • Gravid females are present at lower rectum where they lay ova at perianal region around anus (oviparous). • The female is 0.88-1.3 cm long, it has a long tapering tail resembling 1/3 its length, its strait. • The male is shorter than female (2-5 mm) the tail is curved strongly to ventral side, and has a single spicule. • Infective stage: Embryonated Eggs. • Definitive host: human. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  16. Continue……… • Diagnosis: • Egg in stool is rarely detected but adults present after purgative. • Egg can be detected at perianal area as follow: • N.I.H method (National Institute of Health), its based on swabbing the perianal area with a cellophane paper. • The adhesive cellulose tape (scotch tape), better result. • The Vaseline cloth wiping, the collected ova examined. • Egg morphology: • 20-50u, transparent with double walled shell, it may show one side convex and the other flat. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  17. Entrobius vermicularis Eggs Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  18. Entrobius vermicularis Adult female male Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  19. Intestinal Nematodes Trichuris trichiura Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  20. Life cycle Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  21. Trichuris trichiura • Its commonly called whip worm because of the shape of this worm (anterior thin and posterior thick). • Adult inhabit the large intestine in the caecum of man. • The adult male smaller than female, male 3.4-4.5 cm, female 4-5 cm. • Trichuris trichiura eggs have distinct shape. (oviparous) • Diagnosis: • Stool examination to detect eggs. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  22. Trichuris trichiura Eggs Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  23. Trichuris trichiura Adult Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  24. Intestinal Nematodes Strongyloides stercoralis Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  25. Life cycle Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  26. Strongyloides stercoralis • Adults lives in the small intestine (duodenum and jejunum), fertilized females are deeply embedded in the mucosa, where they also oviposit. • Male have a pointed curved tail associated with two spicules. • Female have straight tail without spicules. • In contrast to the Anclystomaspp., both sexes have short buccal cavity. • Infective stage: Filariform larvae. • Diagnosis: • Based on recovery of the rhabditiform larvae passed in stool. • If diarrhea is present, eggs may also be recovered. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  27. Strongyloides stercoralis Larvae Rhabditiform Filariform Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  28. S. Stercoralis Adult Male spicules spicules Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  29. S. Stercoralis Adult Female Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  30. Intestinal Nematodes Ancylostoma duodenale Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  31. Life cycle Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  32. Ancylostoma duodenalae (Hookworm) • Inhabit human intestine ( jejunum, ileum, and rarely duodenum ) and cause Anclystomiasis. • Male shorter than female and have copulatory bursa and two spicules. • Female is long and has pointed end. • Both sexes have long buccal cavity with two pairs of teeth. • Infective stage: Filariform larvae. • Diagnosis: • Based on finding ova in fresh stool sample. • In old sample, larvae present and must be differentiated from larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  33. Hookworm Eggs Hook worm eggs like insects or mites egg, therefore must be differentiated Mites egg Plant material Hook worm egg Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  34. Hookworm Larvae Filariform Rhabditiform Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  35. Hookworm Adult Female Male Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  36. Ancylostoma duodenalae copulatryburasa Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  37. Ancylostoma duodenalae buccal capsule Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  38. Comparison between Ancylostoma duodenalae and Necator americanus Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  39. Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  40. Copulatory bursa vs Copulatory Spicules Ancylostoma duodenalae copulatory spicules Necator americanus copulatory spicules Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013

  41. Comparison between S. stercoralis and Hookworm Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013