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The Turbulent 60s

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The Turbulent 60s. 1960 Election. Nixon – Republican candidate (former vice president for Eisenhower) Kennedy – Democratic candidate-43 year old senator from Massachusetts. TV’s role in Election. Most decisive factor in the race for presidency First four televised debates

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1960 election
1960 Election
  • Nixon – Republican candidate (former vice president for Eisenhower)
  • Kennedy – Democratic candidate-43 year old senator from Massachusetts
tv s role in election
TV’s role in Election
  • Most decisive factor in the race for presidency
  • First four televised debates
    • Kennedy appeared more vigorous and comfortable
  • New Frontier
  • “The Torch has been passed to a new generation”
  • Administration was dubbed Camelot
kennedy s domestic policy
Kennedy’s Domestic Policy
  • Called for aid in education
  • Federal support of health care
  • Civil rights legislation
  • Urban renewal
    • Most were not passed

Economy stimulated due to increased spending for defense and space

assassination in dallas
Assassination in Dallas
  • Lee Harvey Oswald accused gunman
  • Many conspiracies linked to assassination – none have proved creditable
  • Marked the beginning for distrust in government
kennedy s legacy
Kennedy’s Legacy
  • “ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country”
  • Peace Corp
  • Inspired thousands to public service
johnson s great society
Johnson’s Great Society
  • Medicare – health insurance for those over 65
  • Medicaid – health care for poor and disabled
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act – provided funding to poor school districts
  • National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities
johnson s great society cont
Johnson’s Great Society cont.
  • HUD
  • Increased funding for secondary education
  • Increased funding for public housing
  • Increased funding for crime prevention
  • Regulated automobile industry
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
british invasion
British Invasion
  • Beatles
    • First appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show Feb 9th ’63
    • First hit “I want to hold your hand” hit the airways Jan ’63
    • Held the first 5 places on Billboard Hot 100 in ’64
    • No one person or group has every surpassed them!
second wave of british music
Second Wave of British Music….
  • Rolling Stones
    • Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Ron Wood
  • Yardbirds
    • Consists of Jimmy Page Jeff Beck, and Eric Clapton
haight ashbury in san francisco
Haight- Ashbury In San Francisco
  • became a haven for hippies during the 1960s, due to the availability of cheap properties for rent in the district and the subculture that subsequently flourished there
  • Gained reputation as being center of the drug culture
  • Jefferson Starship members, Janis Joplin, and the Grateful Dead all lived in this district
student movement
Student Movement
  • Tom Hayden – leader of a group of radical students
  • Port Huron statement – university decisions made through participatory democracy
  • SDS – Students for a Democratic Society
free speech movement
Free Speech Movement
  • University of California 1964
  • Called an end to university restrictions on student political activities
  • Student demonstrations grew with the escalation of Vietnam War –many closed down by protests

Kent State - 1970

  • Radical fringe of SDS
  • Embraced violence and vandalism on American institutions
  • Angered by the Vietnam War
  • Discredited early idealism of the New Left
  • Led the protests at the Chicago Democratic convention
  • Expressed by youth in rebellious styles of dress, music, drug use and communal living
  • Bob Dylan and Joan Baez gave voice to protests
  • Beatles, Janis Joplin, Rolling Stones provided the beat
  • Dress code for “hippies”
    • Long hair, beard, and jeans
women s movement
Women’s Movement
  • The Feminine Mystique by Betty Fiedan encouraged middle-class women to seek fulfillment in careers rather than confining roles as wives, mothers, and homemakers
  • NOW – National Organization for Women goal- secure equal treatment of Women
  • ERA – passed in 1972 – equality of rights under the law shall not be denied based on sex
  • Accomplishments -changes in employment and hiring practices
watts riot august 1965
Watts Riot – August 1965
  • Watts neighborhood in Los Angeles erupts
    • After two African American men are pulled over by police for minor traffic incident
    • 34 people killed
    • $40 million dollars in property damage
cesar chavez
Cesar Chavez
  • Chavez was a union organizer and social activist of the 1960s. The son of migrant laborers, Chavez founded the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) and later the United Farm Workers (UFW). He led a five-year nonviolent boycott against California grape growers
ralph nader
Ralph Nader
  • In 1965 he released Unsafe At Any Speed, a study that illustrated fundamentally unsafe engineering of many American automobiles, especially those of General Motors.
  • GM tried to discredit Nader, hiring private detectives to investigate his past and attempt to trap him in a compromising situation, but the effort failed.
  • Upon learning of this harassment, Nader successfully sued the company for invasion of privacy, forced it to publicly apologize, and used much of his $284,000 net settlement to expand his consumer rights efforts.
  • Nader's lawsuit against GM was ultimately decided by the high Court of New York, whose opinion in the case expanded the privacy rights that can be remedied in tort. Nader v. General Motors Corp., 307 N.Y.S.2d 647 (N.Y. 1970).
art of the 60s
Art of the 60s
  • Andy Warhol
    • Famous pop artist
    • Removed the difference between fine arts and commercial arts
    • Painted objects of mass production
    • Produced silk screens and posters using mass production
documents in detail the true menace to the ecosystem caused by harmful pesticides
  • awakened society to a responsibility to other forms of life
  • is credited with launching the contemporary environmental movement
warren court changes in criminal law
Warren CourtChanges in Criminal Law
  • Mapp v. Ohio – ruled illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused
  • Gideon v. Wainwright – required that courts provide an attorney for poor defendants
  • Escobedo v. Illinois – required police to inform an arrested person of their rights
  • Miranda v. Arizona – accused has the right to an attorney present during questioning
expression and privacy
Expression and Privacy
  • Yates v. U.S. – First Amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, even by Communists unless it presented a “clear and present danger” to country
  • Engel v. Vitale – prayer and Bible readings in public schools violated separation of church and state
  • Griswold v. Connecticut – right to privacy – a state could not prohibit the use of contraceptives
1968 coming apart at home
1968: Coming Apart at Home
  • January – Tet Offensive
  • March – My Lai massacre
  • April – Martin Luther King assassinated
  • June – Robert Kennedy assassinated
martin luther king
Martin Luther King
  • Civil rights leader committed to nonviolent protests
  • March on Washington 1963 – most successful peaceful marches in history – delivered “I have a Dream” speech
    • Appealed to end racial prejudice
robert kennedy
Robert Kennedy

Assassinated June 5, 1968

  • Presidential candidate 1968
  • Shot and killed by a young Arab nationalists who opposed Kennedy’s support for Israel
chicago democratic convention 1968
Chicago Democratic Convention: 1968
  • Hubert Humphrey emerged as the candidate controlling the convention inside
  • Outside antiwar demonstrators controlled the streets
  • Chicago’s Mayor Richard Daley had the police out in mass – seen on TV as “police riot”

Battle of Lincoln Park

chicago seven
Chicago SEVEN
  • “YIPPIES” Youth International Party
  • Accused of conspiring to incite the riot at the Democratic National Convention, 1968
  • Government reports placed the blame on Daley and police department
  • Sentenced to five years; overturned in 1972 by federal appeals court

Jerry Ruben, Abby Hoffman, Tom Hayden, David Dellinger, John Froines, Lee Weiner and Bobby Seale

1968 candidates
1968 Candidates
  • Hubert Humphrey – Democrat (New Deal coalition)
  • George Wallace – American Independent Party (hostility towards antiwar protests and segregation)
  • Richard Nixon –Republican (peace with honor)
significance election of 1968
Significance: Election of 1968

Voters sent a very strong message

Supporters of Nixon and Wallace (“Silent Majority”) had enough of the protests, violence, the counterculture, drugs, and federal intervention in socialinstitutions – tide was turning on the New Deal liberalism in favor of the conservatives

one last fling for the hippies
One Last Fling for the “Hippies”
  • Woodstock music festival in upper New York
  • Put together by four young entrepreneurs between the ages 24-26
  • ~500,000 “hippies” gathered peacefully to listen to music