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REPAIR MANUAL. Dr. Mohammed Maslehuddin Research Institute King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. Purpose of the Manual. Assist engineers in diagnosing concrete deterioration problems and planning repair and rehabilitation of deteriorating structures. Contents of Repair Manual.

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REPAIR MANUAL

Dr. Mohammed Maslehuddin

Research Institute

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals


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Purpose of the Manual

  • Assist engineers in diagnosing concrete deterioration problems and planning repair and rehabilitation of deteriorating structures.


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Contents of Repair Manual

  • Chapter 1: Guide to mechanisms of concrete deterioration

  • Chapter 2: Assessment of the extent of concrete deterioration

  • Chapter 3: Strategy for repair of deteriorated concrete structures

  • Chapter 4: Repair materials and their evaluation


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Contents (contd.)

  • Chapter 5: Repair procedures

  • Chapter 6: Repair systems

  • Chapter 7: Long-term monitoring strategies


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Chapter 1A guide to forms of concrete deterioration

  • Reinforcement corrosion

  • Carbonation

  • Sulfate attack

  • Salt weathering

  • Alkali-aggregate reactivity

  • Cracking of concrete

  • Acid attack

  • Damage due to fire

  • Attack due to micro-organisms


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Chapter 2Assessment of Concrete Deterioration

  • Preparation (preparatory desk work)

  • Preliminary investigation (visual inspection and appraisal)

  • Detailed investigation (data collection, field measurements, condition survey, sample collection, testing of samples, analysis and evaluation)

  • Conclusion and recommendations


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Chapter 2 (contd.)Preparation prior to inspection

  • Design information

    • Plans/drawings, as-built drawings, specifications and other related information

    • Location of the structure and topology and accessibility

    • Structural drawings for reinforcement details

  • Service history


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Chapter 2 (contd.)Preliminary investigation

  • Structural condition, extent of cracking, damage

  • Safety of the structure

  • Need for commissioning a detailed inspection

  • Accessories needed for detailed inspection

  • Traffic control requirements

  • Any unusual problems facing the structure


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Chapter 2 (contd.)Detailed investigation

  • Data collection

  • Field measurements and condition survey

  • Sample collection

  • Testing and field samples

  • Analysis and evaluation

  • Report

    • Conclusions

    • Recommendations


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Chapter 2 (contd.)Commonly used test methods

  • Methods for estimating in-situ concrete strength

  • Methods for determining properties other than strength

  • Methods for the physical evaluation of structures


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Chapter 3Strategy for repair of deteriorated concrete structures

  • Cause and extent of damage

  • Consequence of the damage

  • Time for intervention

  • Economics

  • Operational constraints


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Chapter 3Repair options

  • No repair

  • Repair

    • Cosmetic

    • Partial

    • Total

  • Partial repair or total replacement


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy (No repair)

  • Minimal damage

  • No chance of re-occurrence of damage due to overload etc.

  • Expected service life is more than the design life

  • Appearance is not a problem


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy (Repair)

  • Cosmetic repair

    • Limited deterioration

    • Rate of deterioration is too low as in the no repair option

    • Improve the appearance


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy (Repair)

  • Partial repair (patch repair)

    • Rectify apparent defects

    • Structural safety is not affected


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy (Repair)

  • Total repair

    • Advanced deterioration

    • Structurally unsafe

    • Operational constraints for total replacement


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy for corrosion (No repair)

  • Active corrosion but corrosion rate is low

  • Low chloride concentration

  • Structural integrity is not compromised


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy for corrosion (Repair)

  • Cosmetic repair

    • Active corrosion but corrosion rate is low

    • Chloride concentration is high

    • No spalling, localized delamination

    • Structural integrity is not affected


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy for corrosion (Repair)

  • Partial repair (patch repair)

    • Active corrosion

    • Localized delamination or spalling

    • Structural safety is not affected


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy for corrosion (Repair)

  • Total repair

    • Active corrosion

    • Uniform spalling or delamination

    • Excessive loss of cross section of bars at many locations


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Factors influencing the selection of repair strategy for corrosion (Partial or total replacement)

  • Repair is economically not feasible

  • No operational constraints

  • Structure is structurally unsound


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Chapter 4 corrosion (Partial or total replacement)Repair Materials and their Evaluation

  • Repair mortars

    • Cementitious repair mortars

    • Polymer modified cementitious mortars

    • Resin-based repair mortars

    • Sprayed concrete

    • Injection grout

    • Flowing micro concrete

  • Bond coat materials

  • Steel primers

  • Surface coatings


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Chapter 4 corrosion (Partial or total replacement)Repair Materials and their Evaluation

  • Test methods

  • Compliance criteria


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Chapter 5 corrosion (Partial or total replacement)Repair Procedures

  • Repair of cracked and deteriorated concrete

    • Shrinkage cracks

    • Settlement cracks

    • Thermal cracks

    • Dormant or dead cracks

    • Live cracks


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Chapter 5 corrosion (Partial or total replacement)Repair Procedures (contd.)

  • Vacuum impregnation

  • Resin injection

  • Repair of surface defects

  • Repair of inadequate cover

  • Repair of deteriorated and cracked concrete due to sulfate attack and salt scaling

  • Repair of cracks caused by alkali-silica reaction

  • Repair of deterioration due to exposure to chemicals

  • Repair of deterioration and cracking due to exposure to high temperature and fire

  • Repair of spalled concrete


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Chapter 6 corrosion (Partial or total replacement)Repair systems

  • Marine environments

    • System 7 or 1

  • Below ground structures

    • System 1 or 6

  • Sulfur fumes

    • System 6, 5 or 8

  • Acid exposure

    • System 6, 5 or

  • Sweet or saline water

    • System 9 or 10

  • Fire damage

    • System 7 or 8


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Chapter 7 corrosion (Partial or total replacement)Long-term Monitoring Strategies

  • Visual inspection

  • Debonding

  • Monitoring chloride and moisture content

  • Measurement of carbonation depth

  • Assessing reinforcement corrosion

    • Resistivity

    • Corrosion potentials

    • Corrosion rate


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