FDR AND THE NEW DEAL. Guided Reading Activity. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Roosevelt was a wealthy New Yorker and a distant relative of Theodore Roosevelt, a man whom he admired. He was a Assistant Secretary of the Navy, a job TR had held as well.
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FDR AND THE NEW DEAL Guided Reading Activity
Franklin Delano Roosevelt • Roosevelt was a wealthy New Yorker and a distant relative of Theodore Roosevelt, a man whom he admired. • He was a Assistant Secretary of the Navy, a job TR had held as well. • He ran for Vice President in the Election of 1920, but, along with Archibald Cox, lost to Warren G. Harding. • In 1928, he was elected Governor of New York.
FDR’s First Inaugural address “This great nation will endure, as it has endured, will revive, and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself – nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.”
The Bank Holiday of 1933 FDR closed every bank in the USA to establish new rules of operation. He hoped to restore confidence in the banks.
The Fireside Chat In his first “fireside chat” - evening radio addresses which FDR envision American families listen to in while gathered together before a toasty fire – FDR explained why he had closed the banks, and declared, “It is safer to keep your money in a reopened bank than under the mattress.”
The goals of FDR’s New Deal • There were three major goals FDR hoped to accomplish with his New Deal programs: • To provide relief and assistance for the unemployed. • To stimulate economic recovery in the United States of America. • To prevent future economic depressions.
The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) • The Federal Emergency Relief Administration gave money to state agencies so that they could re-open and provide direct an immediate aid to the homeless, the unemployed, the sick, and the needy.
The civilian conservation corps • The Civilian Conservation Corps hired young men from across the country to work in National Parks – planting trees, building reservoirs, constructing parks, and digging irrigation ditches.
The works Progress Administration • Not only did the WPA hire thousands of unskilled workers paving roads, building bridges, schools, government offices, and even railroads. In addition, the program hired artists and writers to produce murals, stories, guides, and histories of the period.
The public Works Administration • The PWA was granted over $3 Billion to build large public-works projects like the Lincoln Tunnel, Florida’s Key West Highway, and the Grand Coulee Cam in Washington state.
The Tennessee Valley Authority • This agency built dams along the Tennessee River in southern Appalachia in order to control flooding, provide cheap electricity to the region, and provide good jobs for people in one of the nation’s poorest regions.
The Federal Deposit Insurance COrporation • FDIC, when it was first created in 1933, guaranteed all individual bank deposits up to $2,500. It also placed restrictions of how banks could lend their money – to insure the safety of customer deposits.
The National Recovery Administration • The pride and joy of Roosevelt’s New Deal, the NRA aimed to keep prices stable. The agency also tried to force businesses to pay higher wages, end child labor, and slow production. While Roosevelt always believed that his policies were for the good of society, capitalist businessmen balked. The agency was taken to court, and eventually ruled unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.
The Court Packing Plan • When the Supreme Court ruled several New Deal programs – including the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the National Recovery Administration – as unconstitutional, Roosevelt was aghast. He decided to try to get around the Supreme Court – and the checks and balances which define our government under the Constitution – by proposing a law to the Congress. Roosevelt argued that he should be allowed to appoint six new Supreme Court justices, changing the size of the Supreme Court to fifteen (15) members. He claimed he was worried that the workload of the Justices was becoming too difficult. But Congress saw right through his plan, knowing that the real reasons he sought to add justices to the Supreme Court was to get more favorable ruling about his New Deal Programs. He, after all, got to appoint the new justices! The public and the two other branches of government were outraged, and the plan was quickly scrapped.