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Planificación Agregada MPS y MRP en manufactura Dr. Walter López Moreno. Aggregate Planning. Determine the quantity and timing of production for the immediate future. Objective is to minimize cost over the planning period by adjusting Production rates Labor levels Inventory levels

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Planificación Agregada MPS y MRP en manufactura Dr. Walter López Moreno


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    1. PlanificaciónAgregadaMPSy MRPen manufacturaDr. Walter López Moreno

    2. Aggregate Planning Determine the quantity and timing of production for the immediate future • Objective is to minimize cost over the planning period by adjusting • Production rates • Labor levels • Inventory levels • Overtime work • Subcontracting • Other controllable variables Heizer 2010

    3. Product decisions Research and technology Marketplace and demand Process planning and capacity decisions Demand forecasts, orders Workforce Raw materials available Aggregate plan for production Inventory on hand External capacity (subcontractors) Master production schedule and MRP systems Detailed work schedules Aggregate Planning Figure 13.2 Heizer 2010

    4. Long-range plans (over one year) Research & Development New product plans Capital investment Facility location/expansion Top executives Intermediate-range plans (3 to 18 months) Sales planning Production planning and budgeting Setting employment, inventory, subcontracting levels Analyzing cooperating plans Operations managers Short-range plans (up to 3 months) Job assignments Ordering Job scheduling Dispatching Overtime Part-time help Operations managers, supervisors, foremen Responsibility Planning tasks and horizon The Planning Process Figure 13.1 Heizer 2010

    5. Production Capacity Inventory Marketing Customer demand Finance Cash flow Procurement Supplier performance Human resources Manpower planning Management Return on investment Capital Engineering Design completion Aggregate production plan Change production plan? Master production schedule The Planning Process Figure 14.1 Heizer 2010

    6. Master production schedule Change master production schedule? Change requirements? Material requirements plan Capacity requirements plan Change capacity? Realistic? No Is capacity plan being met? Is execution meeting the plan? Yes Execute capacity plans Execute material plans The Planning Process Figure 14.1 Heizer 2010

    7. Objectives of master production scheduling are: ● To provide top management with a means to authorize and control manpower levels, inventory investment, and cash flow ● To coordinate marketing, manufacturing, engineering, and finance activities by a commonperformance objective ● To reconcile marketing and manufacturing needs ● To provide an overall measure of performance ● To provide data for material and capacity planning Kerzner 2010

    8. Master Production Schedule (MPS) • Specifies what is to be made and when • Must be in accordance with the aggregate production plan • Aggregate production plan sets the overall level of output in broad terms • As the process moves from planning to execution, each step must be tested for feasibility • The MPS is the result of the production planning process Heizer 2010

    9. Master Production Schedule (MPS) • MPS is established in terms of specific products • Schedule must be followed for a reasonable length of time • The MPS is quite often fixed or frozen in the near term part of the plan • The MPS is a rolling schedule • The MPS is a statement of what is to be produced, not a forecast of demand Heizer 2010

    10. Master Production Schedule (MPS) Can be expressed in any of the following terms: • A customer order in a job shop (make-to-order) company • Modules in a repetitive (assemble-to-stock) company • An end item in a continuous (make-to-stock) company Heizer 2010

    11. Data Files Output Reports MRP by period report BOM Master production schedule MRP by date report Lead times (Item master file) Planned order report Inventory data Purchase advice Material requirement planning programs (computer and software) Exception reports Order early or late or not needed Order quantity too small or too large Purchasing data MRP Structure Figure 14.5 Heizer 2010

    12. Benefits of MRP Better response to customer orders Faster response to market changes Improved utilization of facilities and labor Reduced inventory levels Heizer 2010

    13. Bills of Material • List of components, ingredients, and materials needed to make product • Provides product structure • Items above given level are called parents • Items below given level are called children Heizer 2010

    14. Level Product structure for “Awesome” (A) 0 A Std. 12” Speaker kit w/ amp-booster 1 B(2)Std. 12” Speaker kit C(3) 2 Std. 12” Speaker booster assembly E(2) E(2) F(2) Packing box and installation kit of wire, bolts, and screws D(2) D(2) G(1) 3 Amp-booster 12” Speaker 12” Speaker BOM Example Heizer 2010

    15. Lead Times • The time required to purchase, produce, or assemble an item • For purchased items – the time between the recognition of a need and the availability of the item for production • For production – the sum of the order, wait, move, setup, store, and run times Heizer 2010

    16. Dibujo de Ensamblaje (Engineering Drawing) Lopez 2009

    17. Estructura del Producto del Bill of Material Lopez 2009

    18. Plan Agregado y el Itinerario Maestro de Producción (MPS – Master Production Schedule)

    19. Entradas al MRP (Material RequirementPlanning) utilizando informes del BOM, Compras, Inventario y los tiempos de espera (Lead Times) Lopez 2009

    20. BOM Lopez 2009

    21. Inventario Quantity on hand – Es el inventario que esta disponible en el almacén. WIP – Material que esta en proceso de producción. Cantidad en el piso – Piezas sin labor queestán disponibles y asignadas (comprometidas) para la produccion. En algunoscasosforman parte de un sistema de KANBAN.

    22. Inventario Lopez 2009

    23. Compras PlannedorderReceipt– son los materiales que se planifican comprar de acuerdo a las futuras necesidades. En producciones que estan en proceso los ordenes deben estar en itinerario por recibir (Plannedschedulereceipt) PlannedorderRelease – Son las ordenes que se planifican con el suplidor para las fechas de recibo físicamente en las instalaciones. Estas dependen del lead time. Lopez 2009

    24. Compras Lopez 2009

    25. Requerimientos netos Lopez 2009

    26. Requerimientos netos Lopez 2009

    27. Requerimientos netos Lopez 2009

    28. Tabla del plan de Ordenes de Envío (Release) y Recibos (Receipt) Lopez 2009

    29. Tabla del plan de Ordenes de Envío (Release) y Recibos (Receipt) Lopez 2009

    30. Haga la semana 2, 3 y 4 con los siguientesdatos Lopez 2009

    31. Referencias Heizer/Render (2010) Principles of Operations Management, 6e Operations Management Kerzner Harold, (2010) Project Management , A systems approach to planning, scheduling and control López Walter, (2009) Proceso de planificación en manufactura