Winfield Scott & the Anaconda Plan: The key Confederate port of New Orleans was captured by Union Flag Officer David Farragut in April of 1862. After narrowly escaping defeat at Shiloh, General U.S. Grant took Memphis, TN in June, 1862. That left a 200-mile portion of the Mississippi River in Confederate hands. The fall of Vicksburg in July of 1863 coincided with the turning back of Lee’s northern invasion at Gettysburg and gave the Union control of the Confederacy’s backbone.
Port Royal, SC (1861): A secessionist hotbed, the South Carolina Sea Islands were taken early in the war. This left the Union Army many mansions formerly owned by prominent rebels (such as Robert Barnwell Rhett’s, pictured below). http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1865.html (all photographs can be found here)
These African American slaves were photographed while preparing cotton for the gin on the plantation of a well-known secessionist. The presence of so many slaves presented a dilemma for Union occupants.*see A Place In Time, 423b. – “The scene of pioneer ventures in freedmen’s education, black wage labor, and land redistribution, the Sea Islands had served as a testing ground for new social policies.” 50th Pennsylvania in Beaufort, SC
A Union hospital during McClellan’s ambitious Peninsular Campaign (1862). McClellan came within five miles of the Confederate capitol at Richmond, but remained true to his nature and halted for reinforcements. He had grossly overestimated the size of the Confederate army and Lincoln promptly called off the campaign. Despite the best efforts of each army’s respective surgical and nursing corps, “for every soldier killed, two died of disease.” The three surgeons pictured above are shown during the final campaign of the war.
5 Costliest Battles of the Civil War: • Gettysburg, 7-63 (Meade vs. Lee): 51,112 casualties (23,049 Union and 28,063 Confederate) Union victory • Chickamauga, 9-63 (Rosecrans vs. Bragg): 34,624 (16,170 Union and 18,454 Confederate) Confederate victory • Chancellorsville, 5-63 (Hooker vs. Lee): 30,099 (17,278 Union and 12,821 Confederate – including “Stonewall” Jackson) Confederate victory • Spotsylvania, 5-64 (Grant vs. Lee): 27,399 (18,399 Union and 9,000 Confederate) Conf. victory • Antietam, 9-62 (McClellan vs. Lee): 26,134 (12,410 Union and 13,724 Confederate) inconclusive (U strategic victory) Confederate dead at Antietam
Lincoln was present at Antietam and fired McClellan for his failure to pursue Lee after the Confederates retreated to Maryland.
African Americans were permitted to join the military after the passage of the 2nd confiscation act (July, 1862). Large-scale enlistment began after the Emancipation Proclamation took effect. 186,000 black soldiers served (1/10), half from Confederate states. Blacks suffered much higher mortality rates, mostly as a result of serving in “bacteria-ridden garrisons”. Black POWs were often executed by Southern commanders (Ft. Pillow Massacre) or returned to slavery in their home states.
Ambrose Burnside reads a newspaper between battles. Burnside took command of the Army of the Potomac and was routed by Lee at Fredericksburg (12-62); he was replaced by “Fighting Joe” Hooker, who met a similar fate at Chancellorsville (4, 5-63). Lee then seized the opportunity and launched his second invasion of the North.
Deck and turret of the U.S.S. Monitor – many consider the Civil War to be the first modern war. The soldiers who slopped through miserable conditions might disagree.
Confederate prisoners at Gettysburg; the Federal army managed to maintain control of the high ground despite some of the fiercest fighting of the war.
Telegraph corps, Camp of 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry, 3d Division, Cavalry Corps(winter quarters, 1864)
Grant studies a map held by George Meade during the bloody Wilderness Campaign of 1864
During the Wilderness Campaign, Grant realized his manpower advantage and sent waves of Union soldiers against Confederate positions; at Cold Harbor, he lost over 7,000 men in twenty minutes. Such tactics proved effective, however, as Lee was short of reinforcements with morale reaching an all-time low.
W.T. Sherman during the Atlanta campaign of 1864. By the end of the year, his troops had reached Savannah. They are shown here removing Confederate ammo from Ft. McCallister.
Ruins of Richmond, the Tredeger Iron Works (bottom right) remained intact.
Clockwise: Ford’s Theatre, Presidential Box, Lincoln’s rocking chair from April 14, 1865, and the hanging of four of John Wilkes Booth’s co-conspirators, including Mary Surratt, the first woman executed by the federal government.
Execution of Henry Wirz, commandant of Andersonville Prison Camp; 3,000 prisoners a month were dying by August 1864. The terrible state of the Southern economy was near equally responsible for the death rate. Northern prison conditions were also bad, but nothing approached the horrors of Andersonville.