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The American Revolution. Kings Mountain and Cowpens as Microcosm. The Plan . Dis -spell many myths of the war Tactics, terrain, and the rules of the battlefield Discuss the war in the north The move south Cornwallis in South Carolina Civil War Kings Mountain The interlude

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the american revolution

The American Revolution

Kings Mountain and Cowpens as Microcosm

the plan
The Plan
  • Dis-spell many myths of the war
  • Tactics, terrain, and the rules of the battlefield
  • Discuss the war in the north
  • The move south
  • Cornwallis in South Carolina
  • Civil War
  • Kings Mountain
  • The interlude
  • Double envelopment at the Cowpens
  • Results through to Yorktown
volusia county standards
Volusia County Standards

Unit 4: The American Revolution

hagiography
Hagiography
  • Images of clenched-jawed men
  • Silently suffering
  • Fighting for ideals
  • Standing fast in the face of overwhelming odds
  • Buck skins and hunting rifles
officers
Officers
  • Trainingand experience
  • Desire to emulate
  • OJT – a Darwinian master in war
  • Locally trained men (Morgan, Greene, etc)
troops
Troops
  • American “army” relied on two main types of organizations
    • Continental Regulars
    • Militia
  • Militia were further sub-divided by the state
  • Types of men in each category
  • Reliability issues
tactics
Tactics
  • Myth of the “Indian play”
  • Desire of Washington to create a modern army
  • Training in the British or European method
  • Guerilla or irregular warfare on the fringes of the campaign
terrain
Terrain
  • There are three words that are the absolute key to understanding ANY battlefield
    • Terrain, Terrain, and Terrain!
  • The proper use of terrain will make and break the two battles we are studying
  • The high ground is generally the key
  • The military crest v. the geographic crest
revolutionary weapons
Revolutionary Weapons
  • Musket
    • The bayonet
  • Rifle
  • Artillery
rules of the battlefield
Rules of the Battlefield
  • Offense v. Defense
  • Defense has immense advantages
  • Need a ratio of 2.5 to 1 to achieve victory
  • The momentum of battle
  • The psychology of battle
slide14
1775
  • Lexington and Concord
  • Retreat to Boston
  • Bunker Hill
  • Siege of Boston
the failures of 1776
The Failures of 1776
  • Defense of New York
  • Retreat through New Jersey
  • Defeat after defeat
  • Potential disintegration of the northern army
  • Washington’s Crossing
saratgoa
Saratgoa
  • The British plan
  • Failures of execution
  • Gates’ plan
  • Role of Morgan and the rifle
  • Surrender and impact
valley forge winter
Valley Forge Winter
  • The myths
  • The facts
  • Washington as leader
  • Von Steuben
  • The emergence of a REAL army
  • The symbolism of the topography
stalemate
Stalemate!
  • Monmouth Court House
  • War of maneuver
  • Carlisle Commission
invasion at charleston
Invasion at Charleston
  • Laying siege
  • Gen Lincoln’s miscalculation
  • Fall of Charleston
  • Impact
gates at camden
Gates at Camden
  • Hero of Saratoga
  • Fatal errors
  • Gates’ plan
  • Havoc in the field
  • Results of the battle

Page 41

partisans in the backcountry
Partisans in the Backcountry
  • Civil war in the Carolinas backcountry
  • Pickens
  • Sumter
  • Marion
  • Other groups
move to charlotte
Move to Charlotte
  • William Davie and the stone wall
  • Reception
  • Hornets Nest
  • Attempts at pacification and intimidation
ferguson heads west
Ferguson Heads West
  • Protect left flank
  • Rid area of Patriot militia
  • Build up Loyalist morale
  • Gilbert Town
the ill fated challenge
The Ill-fated Challenge
  • Confluence of events
  • The Scotts-Irish
  • The idea to bluff and bluster
  • The challenge
  • The Patriot response
move to the ridge
Move to the Ridge
  • Ferguson
    • Foray into SC
    • Slow march toward Charlotte
  • Patriots
    • Sycamore Shoals
    • Quaker Meadows
    • Cowpens
  • Arrival at the ridge

Page 56

the plans
The Plans
  • Ferguson
    • Allow reinforcements to come
    • Defend the high ground
    • Use typical British tactics
  • Patriots
    • Arrive by stealth
    • Surround the hill
    • Attack in unison
45 minutes of fighting
45 Minutes of Fighting
  • Beginning the battle
  • Three charges with cold steel
  • Swarming effect
  • British tactical problems
  • Gaining the summit
  • Death of Patrick Ferguson
  • The surrender
aftermath
Aftermath
  • Burying the dead
  • March of prisoners
  • The trial

Page 85

cornwallis moves
Cornwallis Moves
  • Destruction of light forces
  • Changing base of operations
  • Patriots re-occupy Charlotte
greene comes south
Greene Comes South
  • Gates is sacked
  • Greene surveys the terrain
  • Finds only the remnant of an army
cornwallis and greene scheme
Cornwallis and Greene Scheme

Cornwallis

Greene

Split army – Napoleon before his time

Flying army operates in the rear of Cornwallis

  • Re-invade North Carolina
  • Destroy the flying army then Greene
  • Use Tarleton’s Legion as the hammer
morgan and tarleton get into position
Morgan and Tarleton get into Position
  • Morgan wants to go to Georgia
  • Is camped on Pacolet
  • Tarleton starts to move
  • Wants to get Morgan on the ridges of Kings Mountain
  • Morgan begins his retrograde movement toward the Cowpens
  • Tarleton chases and almost catches
terrain of the cowpens
Terrain of the Cowpens

Ravine

Green River Road

N

Morgan Hill

The Swale

West Ravine

Swampy Ground

Hayes Rise

The Rising Ground

morgan s plan
Morgan’s Plan
  • Defense in depth
  • Shock absorber effect
  • Three defensive lines
  • Use terrain and types of troops to advantage
morgan s disposition
Morgan’s Disposition

Washington

N

The Main Line

Tait

Triplett

Howard

The Militia Line

Roebuck

Thomas

Brandon

Hayes

The Skirmish Line

McDowell

Hammond

tarleton s rashness
Tarleton’s Rashness
  • No planning
  • Did not attempt to flank
  • Did not survey the entire field
tarleton s disposition
Tarleton’s Disposition

N

Long, thin line of battle w/o substantial reserves.

3lb “Grasshoppers”

Dragoons

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Highlanders

Legion Cavalry

both sides arrayed for battle
Both Sides Arrayed for Battle

Washington

N

Tait

Triplett

Howard

Roebuck

Thomas

Brandon

Hayes

McDowell

Hammond

Dragoons

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Highlanders

Legion Cavalry

the battle stage one
The Battle: Stage One
  • Tarleton sends 50 dragoons
  • 15 get shot by the skirmish line
  • Tarleton decides to charge
  • The skirmishers take out many officers or “epaulet men”
  • Skirmishers retreat
opening gambit
Opening Gambit

15 of 50 Dragoons are hit in the opening wave

N

McDowell

Hammond

Dragoons

Dragoons

tarleton s initial assault
Tarleton’s Initial Assault

N

Skirmishers take out many of Tarleton’s officers.

Roebuck

Thomas

Brandon

Hayes

McDowell

Hammond

Dragoons

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Highlanders

Legion Cavalry

stage two
Stage Two
  • Militia line keeps up a galling fire on Tarleton
  • Tarleton charges three times
  • Militia finally retreats after putting up pretty stiff resistance
  • Seeking safety of the Continentals
  • Tarleton sends Dragoons, they get beat back by William Washington
  • Tarleton sees what he wants to see
fight on the militia line
Fight on the Militia Line

Washington

N

Tait

Triplett

Howard

McDowell

Roebuck

Thomas

Brandon

Hammond

Hayes

Dragoons

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Militia takes a deadly toll on Tarleton’s infantry and dragoons

Highlanders

militia retreats
Militia Retreats

Washington

N

Tait

Triplett

Howard

McDowell

Hammond

Roebuck

Thomas

Hayes

Brandon

Dragoons

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Highlanders

stage three
Stage Three
  • Tarleton comes upon the Continentals
  • Trade volleys at close range
  • Frasier’s 71st Highlanders 1st battalion comes and overlaps the Continental right flank
  • Misinterpreted order
  • Retreat to “Morgan Hill”
the main line
The Main Line

N

Tait

Triplett

Howard

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Highlanders

Dragoons

the main line1
The Main Line

N

Tait

Triplett

Howard

Highlanders

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Dragoons

Highlanders begin to overlap the Continental right flank

the order
The Order

N

Tait

Tait

Highlanders

Triplett

Howard

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Dragoons

Howard orders the FLANK refused

misunderstood order
Misunderstood Order

N

Tait

Tait

Highlanders

Triplett

Howard

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Light Infantry

Dragoons

Dragoons

The far right companies refused the FRONT!

stage four
Stage Four
  • Howard’s men reform
  • Fire a volley at pointblank range
  • Washington’s Dragoons overlap British right flank
a surprise
A Surprise

Militia

Dragoons

N

Tait

Tait

Howard

Triplett

Highlanders

Light Infantry

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Morgan and Howard reform on the final hill and trade volleys

counter charge
Counter Charge

Militia

Dragoons

N

Tait

Tait

Howard

Triplett

Highlanders

Light Infantry

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Continental fire and bayonets create havoc in the British ranks

the double envelopment
The Double Envelopment

N

Militia

Dragoons

Tait

Tait

Howard

Triplett

Highlanders

Light Infantry

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

British are staggered and the Dragoons and Militia hit them in the flanks

final act
Final Act
  • British are staggered
  • Begin to break
  • Pickens’ militia had reformed
  • Enveloped the British left flank
  • British surrender
  • Tarleton orders a charge, only 50 come
winning the battle
Winning the Battle

N

Tait

Tait

Howard

Triplett

Highlanders

Light Infantry

7th Regiment

Legion Infantry

Militia

Dragoons

Flight ensues and the battle is won

aftermath1
Aftermath
  • No slaughter of those surrendering
  • Tarleton gets away
  • Morgan scared of Cornwallis close by
  • Moves army to Island Ford by nightfall
  • Race to the Catawba begins
cornwallis fatal error
Cornwallis’ Fatal Error
  • Army too slow to catch Morgan
  • Burns all baggage and equipment
  • Tries to live off the blighted land
  • Wears his army down marching and fighting on short rations
race to the dan
Race to the Dan
  • Gets in a foot race with Greene
  • Greene knows terrain
  • Greene wins
guilford court house
Guilford Court House
  • Greene ends up giving battle near Greensboro
  • Greene loses the field but bleeds Cornwallis’ army
  • Cornwallis turns toward VA and Greene goes to SC
  • Cornwallis will eventually end up in Yorktown
slide72

If you have any questions or comments please feel free to shoot me an email or give me a call.

rbrown@aihe.info

704-470-4406

images
Images
  • Hagiography - http://www.kotsiou-tours.com/images/zindros/1-1.JPG
  • GW - http://www.stjosephsmen.com/images/291_GeorgeWashingtonPraying.gif
  • Militia - http://wwwpublic.ignet.army.mil/images/BunkerHill.jpg
  • Partisan Tactics - http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v474/autorank/Articles/kingsmt.jpg
  • Move to the Ridge - http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/collections/nc/overmountain.jpg
  • KM B&W - http://www.amfirstbooks.com/IntroPages/ToolBarTopics/Articles/Featured_Authors/may,_captain_eric/May_works/May_Art/Battle_of_Kings_Mountain_B&W.579.jpg
  • Patriot Response . http://www.sitemason.com/files/bmz4FW/overmountainmen.jpg
  • Ft at Sycamore Shoals – www.tnhistoryforkids.com
  • B&W Map to Charlotte - http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/hh/22/images/hh22c2.jpg
  • Fusiliers Marching - http://bethtrissel.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/british-soldiers4.jpg
  • KM Painting - http://kmathletics.com/images/dtkm.jpg
  • Death of Ferguson - http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/battles/king-mountain-monument.jpg
  • Hanging - http://www.britishbattles.com/images/hanging-british-officer.jpg
  • Cornwallis Moves - http://www.nps.gov/history/seac/socamap.jpg
  • Troiani Print - http://www.historicalartprints.com/images/product_large/the_battle_of_cowpens_lg.jpg
  • Cornwallis - http://www.trading-ford.org/images/Cornwallis_portrait.jpg
  • Shock Absorber - http://www.basiccarrepair.com/images/255-1.jpg
  • Tarleton - http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/images/slavery_business_gallery_07.jpg
  • Cornwallis - http://home.golden.net/~marg/bansite/friends/images/s_cornwallis.jpg
  • Greene - http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~robert/nathanaelgreene.jpg
  • Morgan - http://www.nps.gov/cowp/forteachers/images/morgan3.jpg
  • Camden - http://www.britishbattles.com/images/camden/map-05.gif
  • Sumter - http://www.nndb.com/people/123/000052964/thomas-sumter-1-sized.jpg
  • Marion - http://teachers.greenville.k12.sc.us/sites/ekrezdor/South%20Carolina/Francis%20Marion-%20Swamp%20Fox.bmp
  • Ferguson - http://www.americanrevolution.org/ferguson.gif
  • Siege of Charleston - http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/graphics/map14_a.gif
  • Brandywine - http://www.brandywinesoldiers.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/americans-holding-their-ground-at-the-battle-of-the-brandywine-american-revolution-c-1777-web.jpg
  • Bunker Hill - http://www.oldgloryprints.com/Bunker_Hill.jpg
  • Washington’s Crossing - http://www.ushistory.org/WashingtonCrossing/images/crossing_2.jpg
  • Gates - http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~robert/GATES.jpg
  • Saratoga - http://theamericanrevolution.org/images/battles/saratog1.jpg