A: wouldyouliketocomeoverfor a drinktomorrow? B: yes, thatwould be nice. (accept) yes, if it would be aftersix. (acceptwith a condition) No. (reject) Instead of No, wecould say: -thanksverymuch. (appreciation) -I’m afraid… (softener) -I’m bookedup. (reason) -whatabout…? (face-saver)
Language teachersshoulddesign role-palyactivitiesforsuchlinguisticelements. Scarcella& Brunack (1981) Nativeandnon-nativespeaker’sgivinginformalinvitations
Exchanges Exchangesareindependentlyobservableentities. Adjecencypairsmay be found in them.
Inclass • Teacher:Now Maria, you ask Fumiko. • Maria: Whatdidyou do at theweekend? • Fumiko: I wenttoWales. • Teacher:Good, nowFumiko, you ask Marco • Etc…. • Outsidetheclass • Maria:Whatdidyou do at theweekend? • Fumiko: I wenttoWales. • Maria: Oh, really? Wheredidyougo?
Turn-taking • Innatural English discourseturn-takingsoccur; • Smoothly • Withonlylittleoverlapandintervention • Onlybriefsilencesbetweenturns.
Specificlinguistcdevicesforgettingtheturn • Gettingtheturnwhenone is unable • If I may, Mr. Chairman/ Can I justcome in here/etc… • Not takingtheturnwhenone is able (back-channel) • Mm/ha-ha/yeah/no/right/sure/etc… • Predictingoneanothersutterances Natural conversational data can be chaoticbecause of thesedevices. (p. 127 forexample)
Intheclass Turn-takingactivitiesare done underthecontrol of theteacher Studentsrarelyspeakout of turn Includepairandgroupworkto break thispattern Pay attentiontothenaturaloccurances of back-channel, utterancecompletion, etc… Instead of teachingthesefeatures, specificlinguisticrealisations can be presentedandpracticed
Transactions • Transactionareused in: • Classroom • Doctor’ssurgeries • Formalinterviews • Openingandclosing a conversation
Bydrawingattentionto how a teacherusesmarkerstodevideup a lesson, He can teachsometransactionssuch as: • Right • Now • Okay • So • Anyway • Well • Getlearnerstotranslatetheminto L1
Topics • Themost dominant definition of topic in languageteachingmaterials is • Theexpression of topics as titlesforthesubjectmatter. Topics can be reasonforpeopleto talk orthey can arisebecausepeoplearealreadytalking.
Beside consantrating on vocabulary of topics, interactivefeatures of topics can be taught: • Openingmarkers: bytheway, incidentally, talking of X • Closingmarkers: still, anyway, so • Summarising a topicorreactingwithevaluation Soundsawful, quitestrange, really
Interactionalandtransactional talk • Transactional talk: • Togetthebusiness done • Toproducesomechange • Interactional talk: • Tolubricatethesocialwheels • Toestablishrolespriortotransactional talk • Toconformandconsolidaterelationship • Toexpresssolidarity
Stories, anecdotes, jokes Labov’s model (1972) forelementsfound in normal narratives:
Evaluation: • Makingthestoryworthlisteningby • Tellingthatyoulikethejoke • Exaggretion • Creatingnoises • It’seasytotellstories in L1 • For L2, real data is helpfulforpractice • Thenarrativeelementsandmarkerswill not translatefromonelanguagetoanother
Someopeners • I’llalwaysrebemmerthe time… • Did I ever tellyouabout… • I musttellyouabout… • I heard a goodonetheotherday… • Somemarkerstocomplicateevents • Andthen, suddenly, out of theblue… • Nextthingweknew… • And as ifthatwas’tenough… • Somecodas • Makesyouwonder.. • So, thereweare • Andthatwas it, really
Otherspokendiscoursetypes • Information-gapactivitiessuch as givingdirectionsareveryhelpful in generating talk. PsathasandKozloff (1976) found a three-phasestructurein suchtalks:
Speech andgrammar • Spoken data presents a differentpicturefromthewritten data. • Spoken data containsformsthatwould be consideredungrammatical in writtendiscourse. • Thesemistakesareunnoticed in natural talk. • The problem is isthat I don’tknow her number
Speech abounds in • verblessclauses, elipses • Lack of concordandomittedrelativeparticles • Falsestarts, slips of tongue e.g. There’s a fewproblesarelikelytocropup. Ifyoulikewecouldthere’sfood in thefridgewhydon’twecouldhavesomethingifyou’rehungry.
Conclusion Periodicalliterature of discourseanalysisabounds in detailedstudieswhichareoften not carriedoutwithanyovertpedagogicalaim. Howevertheyareusefulforteachersandmaterialwriters. Complete naturalness is probablyimpossible in theclass, but engagingthestudent in authenticactivities is important.