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Cities are an environmental abomination. . . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cities are an environmental abomination. . . Right?. “ The growth of cities will be the single largest influence on development in the 21st century. ” UN, 1996, State of World Population. Largest urban areas.

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slide2
“The growth of cities will be the single largest influence on development in the 21st century.”
    • UN, 1996, State of World Population
largest urban areas
Largest urban areas
  • 1. Tokyo, Japan - 28,025,000 2. Mexico City, Mexico - 18,131,000 3. Mumbai, India - 18,042,000 4. Sáo Paulo, Brazil - 17, 711,000 5. New York City, USA - 16,626,000 6. Shanghai, China - 14,173,000 7. Lagos, Nigeria - 13,488,000 8. Los Angeles, USA - 13,129,000 9. Calcutta, India - 12,900,000 10. Buenos Aires, Argentina - 12,431,000
air quality
Air quality
  • Magnitogorosk, RU
  • Hyderabad, IND
air quality1
Air quality
  • Primary and secondary air pollution
  • Primary: directly emitted
    • Particulate matter: pm10 and pm5
    • Lead
  • Secondary: forms in atmosphere
    • Ground level ozone
impermeable surfaces1
Impermeable surfaces
  • Don’t allow water to sink into the ground
  • Instead, water runs off quickly to storm drains
    • Overwhelms sewage treatment plants, OR
    • Goes directly to nearby water bodies
cities influence climate
Cities influence climate
  • Urban heat island effect
  • Roads, buildings, other infrastructure replace vegetation
  • Absorb solar energy during day, radiate heat at night
    • Roofs, roads can be 50-90 deg. F hotter than air temperature!
major urban problems in u s
Major Urban Problems in U.S.
  • Deteriorating services
  • Aging infrastructures
  • Budget crunches from lost tax revenues as businesses and affluent people leave
  • Rising poverty with violence, drugs, decay
  • Urban sprawl - growth of low-density development on edges of cities and towns
    • 9 consequences of “bad growth”
urban resource and environmental problems
Urban Resource and Environmental Problems
  • Destruction of plant life - what is $ value?
  • Cities produce little of own food
  • Urban heat island effect
  • Water supply and flooding problems
  • High pollution exposure
urban resource environmental problems
Urban Resource & Environmental Problems
  • Excessive noise exposure  health effects
    • Hearing loss, hypertension, muscle tension, migraines, headaches, higher cholesterol levels, gastric ulcers, irritability, insomnia, psychological disorders, aggression
urban resource environmental problems1
Urban Resource & Environmental Problems
  • Beneficial effects:
    • education
    • social services
    • medical care
  • Harmful effects
    • infectious disease spread
      • high density population
      • inadequate drinking and sewage system
    • physical injuries
    • pollution exposure
    • Urban Sprawl
transportation
Transportation
  • Greater use of mass transit and less use of private automobiles
  • Much more walking in some cities
transportation1
transportation
  • Energy efficiency of different forms
    • Btus per person mile
    • Vanpool 1322
    • Eff. Hybrid 1659
    • Commuter rail 2996
    • Cars 3512
    • Air 3261
fighting obesity
Fighting obesity
  • City dwellers less likely to be obese
    • St. John Newfoundland 36%
    • Toronto 16%
    • Vancouver 12%
    • New York City 20%
alternatives to cities
Alternatives to cities
  • Suburbs
    • Developed during 20th century
    • People wanted space
      • Loans, returning veterans
    • Transportation: cars made living in one place, working in another possible
  • Westchester cty, NY: world’s first large-scale suburban development
sprawl development
Sprawl development
  • Spreading outward of city and suburbs
  • Low-density development
    • Single family homes, large lots
    • Auto dependent development
      • Long distances to work
zoning
Zoning
  • Laws that regulate land use in a city or town are zoning laws (or regulations).
smart growth
Smart Growth
  • A new development paradigm
    • Restoring center cities or older suburbs
    • Transit and pedestrian oriented
    • Mix of housing, retail, entertainment, other uses
urban considerations
Urban considerations
  • Energy use
  • Transportation
  • Cars vs. bikes vs pedestrian vs mass transit
  • Living space
  • Recycling
  • Lack of green space
urban sprawl causes effects
Urban Sprawl: Causes & Effects
  • (1) Automobiles and Highway Construction
  • (2) Living Costs
  • (3) Urban Blight
  • (4) Government Policies
1 automobiles and highway construction
(1) Automobiles and Highway Construction
  • 1950’s: the Interstate Highway System
  • Commuting
  • Work in the city and live in the suburbs
  • Best of both worlds!
2 living costs
(2) Living Costs
  • The American Dream
  • More Land
  • Larger House
  • Privacy
  • Lower taxes
  • Overall, higher

standard of living Levittown

  • Excludes low income families
3 urban blight
(3) Urban Blight
  • The degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies the accelerated migration to the suburbs
  • A positive feedback loop
3 urban blight1
(3) Urban Blight
  • People leaving cities
  • Shrinking tax revenues
  • City still must provide: police, fire, trash, sewage, public transportation, and social services
  • Cities reduce services
  • Crime increases
  • Infrastructure deteriorates
  • Built environment declines
3 urban blight2
(3) Urban Blight
  • Suburban office parks
  • Suburb to suburb commuting
  • Can’t provide public transportation b/c too spread out
  • Commute around cities instead of through them
  • No need to go to the stores in a city
3 urban blight3
(3) Urban Blight
  • Contributed to Racial Segregation
  • “White Flight”
  • Generated a disparity of opportunity
  • Suburban Property tax revenues allow for better schools
  • Example: Busing in Boston 1974
4 government policies
(4) Government Policies
  • Highway Trust Fund
    • Highway Revenue Act 1956
      • Federal gasoline tax to fund road construction/maintenance
    • Induced Demand
  • Who can Explain this Positive Feedback mechanism?
4 government policies1
(4) Government Policies
  • Zoning
  • Restrict land use to specific areas: residential, industrial, commercial
  • In the suburbs, where the traditional “Main Street?”
  •  new tool: multi-use zoning
4 government policies2
(4) Government Policies
  • FHA (1930’s)
  • Federally Subsidized Mortgages
  • Only wrote them in the financially low-risk areas
smart growth1
Smart Growth
  • Development of sustainable, healthy communities
smart growth2
Smart Growth
  • Transit Oriented development
  • Portland, OR
  • Infill
  • Urban Growth Boundaries
concentric circle model
Concentric Circle Model
  • Central business district (CBD)
  • Deteriorating transition zone
  • Worker’s homes
  • Middle-class suburbs
  • Commuter's zone
sector model
Sector Model
  • High-rent residential
  • Intermediate-rent residential
  • Low-rent residential
  • Education and recreation
  • Transportation
  • Industrial
  • Core (CBD)
multiple nuclei model
Multiple-Nuclei Model
  • CBD
  • Wholesale, light manufacturing
  • Low-rent residential
  • Intermediate-rent residential
  • High-rent residential
  • Heavy manufacturing
  • Outlying business district
  • Residential Suburb
  • Industrial Suburb
slide66

Impacts of Urban Sprawl

Water

Land and Biodiversity

Human Health

and Aesthetics

Increased runoff

Increased surface water

& groundwater pollution

Increased use of surface

water & groundwater

Decreased storage of

Surface water &

groundwater

Increased flooding

Decreased natural

Sewage treatment

Loss of cropland

Loss of forests &

grasslands

Loss of wetlands

Loss & fragmentation of

wildlife habitats

Increased wildlife road kill

Increased soil erosion

Contaminated drinking water & air

Noise pollution

Sky illumination at night

Traffic congestion

slide67

Impacts of Urban Sprawl

Energy, Air, and Climate

Increased energy use

and waste

Increased air pollution

Increased greenhouse gas

Emissions

Enhanced global warming

Warmer microclimate

(heat island effect)

Economic Effects

Higher taxes

Decline of downtown

business districts

Increased unemployment

in central city

Loss of tax base in central city

transportation and urban development
Transportation and Urban Development
  • Determines where people live, where they go to work and buy stuff, how much land is paved and exposure to air pollution
  • Cities grow up if they can’t grow out; more prone to use mass transit
  • Urban sprawl due to cheap gas and land and highways; dispersed car-centered cities use 10x more energy
motor vehicle concentration

Drive alone 80%

Other 4%

Public transit 5%

Car pool 11%

Motor vehicle concentration
  • Ground transportation: individual (cars, etc) and mass (buses and rail)
  • U.S. has 35% of cars and trucks used for 98% of all urban transportation
  • Motor scooters - effort to change to electric
  • Riding bicycles;

less pollution and

dangerous and more

efficient than

walking

    • bicycles available

for public use

    • bike and ride

systems

pros and cons of mass transit
Pros and Cons of Mass transit
  • 3% mass transit use in U.S. to 47% in Japan
  • 20% gasoline tax revenues to mass transit
  • Rapid rail, suburban trains and trolley - efficient at high population density
  • High speed rail lines – replace planes, buses and private cars; but require large government subsidies
  • Bus systems more flexible than rail systems but efficient when full